Natural remedies for:Natural remedies for:Natural remedies for:Natural remedies for:Natural remedies for:Natural remedies for:Natural remedies for:Natural remedies for:Natural remedies for:
Acne
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.[10] It is characterized by blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, oily skin, and possible scarring.[1][2][11] It primarily affects areas of the skin with a relatively high number of oil glands, including the face, upper part of the chest, and back.[12] The resulting appearance can lead to anxiety, reduced self-esteem and, in extreme cases, depression or thoughts of suicide.[3][4] Genetics is thought to be the primary cause of acne in 80% of cases.[2] The role of diet and cigarette smoking is unclear, and neither cleanliness nor exposure to sunlight appear to play a part.[2][13][14] During puberty, in both sexes, acne is often brought on by an increase in hormones such as testosterone.[5] A frequent factor is excessive growth of the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which is normally present on the skin.[5] Many treatment options for acne are available, including lifestyle changes, medications, and medical procedures. Eating fewer simple carbohydrates such as sugar may help.[7] Treatments applied directly to the affected skin, such as azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and salicylic acid, are commonly used.[8] Antibiotics and retinoids are available in formulations that are applied to the skin and taken by mouth for the treatment of acne.[8] However, resistance to antibiotics may develop as a result of antibiotic therapy.[15] Several types of birth control pills help against acne in women.[8] Isotretinoin pills are usually reserved for severe acne due to greater potential side effects.[8] Early and aggressive treatment of acne is advocated by some in the medical community to decrease the overall long-term impact to individuals.[4] In 2015, acne was estimated to affect 633 million people globally, making it the 8th most common disease worldwide.[9][16] Acne commonly occurs in adolescence and affects an estimated 80–90% of teenagers in the Western world.[17][18][19] Lower rates are reported in some rural societies.[19][20] Children and adults may also be affected before and after puberty.[21] Although acne becomes less common in adulthood, it persists in nearly half of affected people into their twenties and thirties and a smaller group continue to have difficulties into their forties.[2]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acne
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.[7][8] It is characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity, or difficulty controlling behavior which is not appropriate for a person's age.[1][2] The symptoms appear before a person is twelve years old, are present for more than six months, and cause problems in at least two settings (such as school, home, or recreational activities).[3][9] In children, problems paying attention may result in poor school performance.[1] Although it causes impairment, particularly in modern society, many children with ADHD have a good attention span for tasks they find interesting.[10] Despite being the most commonly studied and diagnosed mental disorder in children and adolescents, the exact cause is unknown in the majority of cases.[4] It affects about 5–7% of children when diagnosed via the DSM-IV criteria[11][2] and 1–2% when diagnosed via the ICD-10 criteria.[12] As of 2015 it is estimated to affect about 51.1 million people.[6] Rates are similar between countries and depend mostly on how it is diagnosed.[13] ADHD is diagnosed approximately three times more often in boys than in girls, although the disorder is often overlooked in girls due to their symptoms differing from those of boys.[14][15][16] About 30–50% of people diagnosed in childhood continue to have symptoms into adulthood and between 2–5% of adults have the condition.[17][18][19] The condition can be difficult to tell apart from other disorders, as well as to distinguish from high levels of activity that are still within the normal-range.[9] ADHD management recommendations vary by country and usually involve some combination of counseling, lifestyle changes, and medications.[1] The British guideline only recommends medications as a first-line treatment in children who have severe symptoms and for medication to be considered in those with moderate symptoms who either refuse or fail to improve with counseling, though for adults medications are a first-line treatment.[20] Canadian and American guidelines recommend that medications and behavioral therapy be used together as a first-line therapy, except in preschool-aged children.[21][22] Stimulant medication therapy is not recommended as a first-line therapy in preschool-aged children in either guideline.[20][22] Treatment with stimulants is effective for up to 14 months; however, its long term effectiveness is unclear.[23][24][25][26] Adolescents and adults tend to develop coping skills which make up for some or all of their impairments.[27] The medical literature has described symptoms similar to ADHD since the 19th century.[28] ADHD, its diagnosis, and its treatment have been considered controversial since the 1970s.[29] The controversies have involved clinicians, teachers, policymakers, parents, and the media. Topics include ADHD's causes and the use of stimulant medications in its treatment.[30] Most healthcare providers accept ADHD as a genuine disorder in children and adults, and the debate in the scientific community mainly centers on how it is diagnosed and treated.[31][32][33] The condition was officially known as attention deficit disorder (ADD) from 1980 to 1987 while before this it was known as hyperkinetic reaction of childhood
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder
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Allergies
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that usually causes little or no problem in most people.[10] These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis.[2] Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling.[1] Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.[5][4] Common allergens include pollen and certain food. Metals and other substances may also cause problems.[10] Food, insect stings, and medications are common causes of severe reactions. Their development is due to both genetic and environmental factors.[3] The underlying mechanism involves immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), part of the body's immune system, binding to an allergen and then to a receptor on mast cells or basophils where it triggers the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine.[11] Diagnosis is typically based on a person's medical history. Further testing of the skin or blood may be useful in certain cases.[4] Positive tests, however, may not mean there is a significant allergy to the substance in question.[12] Early exposure to potential allergens may be protective.[6] Treatments for allergies include avoiding known allergens and the use of medications such as steroids and antihistamines.[7] In severe reactions injectable adrenaline (epinephrine) is recommended.[8] Allergen immunotherapy, which gradually exposes people to larger and larger amounts of allergen, is useful for some types of allergies such as hay fever and reactions to insect bites. Its use in food allergies is unclear.[7] Allergies are common.[9] In the developed world, about 20% of people are affected by allergic rhinitis,[13] about 6% of people have at least one food allergy,[4][6] and about 20% have atopic dermatitis at some point in time.[14] Depending on the country about 1–18% of people have asthma.[15][16] Anaphylaxis occurs in between 0.05–2% of people.[17] Rates of many allergic diseases appear to be increasing.[8][18] The word "allergy" was first used by Clemens von Pirquet in 1906.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allergy
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Anxiety
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.[1] It is the subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events, such as the feeling of imminent death.[2] Anxiety is not the same as fear, which is a response to a real or perceived immediate threat,[3] whereas anxiety is the expectation of future threat.[3] Anxiety is a feeling of uneasiness and worry, usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a situation that is only subjectively seen as menacing.[4] It is often accompanied by muscular tension,[3] restlessness, fatigue and problems in concentration. Anxiety can be appropriate, but when experienced regularly the individual may suffer from an anxiety disorder.[3]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anxiety
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Arthritis
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.[1] Symptoms generally include joint pain and stiffness.[1] Other symptoms may include redness, warmth, swelling, and decreased range of motion of the affected joints.[1][2] In some types other organs are also affected.[5] Onset can be gradual or sudden.[4] There are over 100 types of arthritis.[3][4] The most common forms are osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis usually occurs with age and affects the fingers, knees, and hips. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that often affects the hands and feet.[5] Other types include gout, lupus, fibromyalgia, and septic arthritis.[5][7] They are all types of rheumatic disease.[1] Treatment may include resting the joint and alternating between applying ice and heat. Weight loss and exercise may also be useful.[5] Pain medications such as ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) may be used.[6] In some a joint replacement may be useful.[5] Osteoarthritis affects more than 3.8% of people while rheumatoid arthritis affects about 0.24% of people.[8] Gout affects about 1 to 2% of the Western population at some point in their lives.[9] In Australia about 15% of people are affected,[10] while in the United States more than 20% of have a type of arthritis.[7][11] Overall the disease becomes more common with age.[7] Arthritis is a common reason that people miss work and can result in a decreased quality of life.[6] The term is from Greek arthro- meaning joint and -itis meaning inflammation.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthritis
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Asthma
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.[3] It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm.[10] Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.[2] These episodes may occur a few times a day or a few times per week. Depending on the person, they may become worse at night or with exercise.[3] Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[4] Environmental factors include exposure to air pollution and allergens.[3] Other potential triggers include medications such as aspirin and beta blockers.[3] Diagnosis is usually based on the pattern of symptoms, response to therapy over time, and spirometry.[5] Asthma is classified according to the frequency of symptoms, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate.[11] It may also be classified as atopic or non-atopic, where atopy refers to a predisposition toward developing a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction.[12][13] There is no cure for asthma.[3] Symptoms can be prevented by avoiding triggers, such as allergens and irritants, and by the use of inhaled corticosteroids.[6][14] Long-acting beta agonists (LABA) or antileukotriene agents may be used in addition to inhaled corticosteroids if asthma symptoms remain uncontrolled.[15][16] Treatment of rapidly worsening symptoms is usually with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist such as salbutamol and corticosteroids taken by mouth.[7] In very severe cases, intravenous corticosteroids, magnesium sulfate, and hospitalization may be required.[17] In 2015, 358 million people globally had asthma, up from 183 million in 1990.[8][18] It caused about 397,100 deaths in 2015,[9] most of which occurred in the developing world.[3] It often begins in childhood.[3] The rates of asthma have increased significantly since the 1960s.[19] Asthma was recognized as early as Ancient Egypt.[20] The word "asthma" is from the Greek ἅσθμα, ásthma, which means "panting".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asthma
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Athlete's foot
Athlete's foot, known medically as tinea pedis, is a common skin infection of the feet caused by fungus.[2] Signs and symptoms often include itching, scaling, and redness.[3] In severe cases the skin may blister.[6] Athlete's foot fungus may infect any part of the foot, but most often grows between the toes.[3] The next most common area is the bottom of the foot.[6] The same fungus may also affect the nails or the hands.[4] It is a member of the group of diseases known as tinea.[7] Athlete's foot is caused by a number of different fungi.[3] These include species of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum.[4] The condition is typically acquired by coming into contact with infected skin, or fungus in the environment.[3] Common places where the fungi can survive are around swimming pools and in locker rooms.[8] They may also be spread from other animals.[5] Usually diagnosis is made based on signs and symptoms; however, it can be confirmed either by culture or seeing hyphae using a microscope.[4] Some methods of prevention include avoiding walking barefoot in public showers, keeping the toenails short, wearing big enough shoes, and changing socks daily.[4][5] When infected, the feet should be kept dry and clean and wearing sandals may help.[3] Treatment can be either with antifungal medication applied to the skin such as clotrimazole or for persistent infections antifungal medication that are taken by mouth such as terbinafine.[2][4] The use of the cream is typically recommended for four weeks.[4] Athletes foot was first medically described in 1908.[9] Globally, athlete's foot affects about 15% of the population.[2] Males are more often affected than females.[4] It occurs most frequently in older children or younger adults.[4] Historically it is believed to have been a rare condition, that became more frequent in the 1900s due to the great use of shoes, health clubs, war, and travel.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athlete%27s_foot
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Back Pain
Back pain is pain felt in the back. Episodes of back pain may be acute, sub-acute, or chronic depending on the duration. The pain may be characterized as a dull ache, shooting or piercing pain, or a burning sensation. The pain may radiate into the arms and hands as well as the legs or feet, and may include paresthesia (tingling with no apparent cause),[1] weakness or numbness in the legs and arms. The anatomic classification of back pain follows the segments of the spine: neck pain (cervical), middle back pain (thoracic), lower back pain (lumbar) or coccydynia (tailbone or sacral pain) with the lumbar vertebrae area most common for pain. The pain may originate from the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the vertebral column (spine). Internal structures such as the gallbladder and pancreas may also cause referred pain in the back. Back pain is common with about nine out of ten adults experiencing it at some point in their life, and five out of ten working adults having it every year.[2] However, it is rare for it to be permanently disabling, and in most cases of herniated disks and stenosis, rest, injections or surgery have similar general pain resolution outcomes on average after one year. In the United States, acute low back pain is the fifth most common reason for physician visits and causes 40% of missed days off work.[3] Additionally, it is the single leading cause of disability worldwide.[4]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Back_pain
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(Gas)
Bloat is any abnormal gas swelling, or increase in diameter of the abdominal area. [1] As a symptom, the patient feels a full and tight abdomen, which may cause abdominal pain and is sometimes accompanied by increased stomach growling, or more seriously, the total lack of it.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloating
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Bronchitis
Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.[1] Symptoms include coughing up mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest discomfort.[1] Bronchitis is divided into two types: acute and chronic.[1] Acute bronchitis is also known as a chest cold.[1] Acute bronchitis usually has a cough that lasts around three weeks.[4] In more than 90% of cases the cause is a viral infection.[4] These viruses may be spread through the air when people cough or by direct contact. Risk factors include exposure to tobacco smoke, dust, and other air pollution.[1] A small number of cases are due to high levels of air pollution or bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Bordetella pertussis.[4][5] Treatment of acute bronchitis typically involves rest, paracetamol (acetaminophen), and NSAIDs to help with the fever.[6][7] Chronic bronchitis is defined as a productive cough that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years.[8] Most people with chronic bronchitis have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).[9] Tobacco smoking is the most common cause, with a number of other factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller role.[10] Treatments include quitting smoking, vaccinations, rehabilitation, and often inhaled bronchodilators and steroids.[11] Some people may benefit from long-term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.[11] Acute bronchitis is one of the most common diseases.[6][12] About 5% of adults are affected and about 6% of children have at least one episode a year.[2][13] In 2010, COPD affects 329 million people or nearly 5% of the global population.[3] In 2013, it resulted in 2.9 million deaths, up from 2.4 million deaths in 1990.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronchitis
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Burns
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.[2] Most burns are due to heat from hot liquids, solids, or fire.[3] Females in many areas of the world have a higher risk related to the more frequent use of open cooking fires or unsafe cook stoves.[3] Alcoholism and smoking are other risk factors.[3] Burns can also occur as a result of self harm or violence between people.[3] Burns that affect only the superficial skin layers are known as superficial or first-degree burns. They appear red without blisters and pain typically lasts around three days.[1][6] When the injury extends into some of the underlying skin layer, it is a partial-thickness or second-degree burn. Blisters are frequently present and they are often very painful. Healing can require up to eight weeks and scarring may occur.[1] In a full-thickness or third-degree burn, the injury extends to all layers of the skin.[1] Often there is no pain and the burn area is stiff.[1] Healing typically does not occur on its own.[1] A fourth-degree burn additionally involves injury to deeper tissues, such as muscle, tendons, or bone.[1] The burn is often black and frequently leads to loss of the burned part.[1][7] Burns are generally preventable.[3] Treatment depends on the severity of the burn.[1] Superficial burns may be managed with little more than simple pain medication, while major burns may require prolonged treatment in specialized burn centers.[1] Cooling with tap water may help pain and decrease damage; however, prolonged cooling may result in low body temperature.[1][6] Partial-thickness burns may require cleaning with soap and water, followed by dressings.[1] It is not clear how to manage blisters, but it is probably reasonable to leave them intact if small and drain them if large.[1] Full-thickness burns usually require surgical treatments, such as skin grafting.[1] Extensive burns often require large amounts of intravenous fluid, due to capillary fluid leakage and tissue swelling.[6] The most common complications of burns involve infection.[8] Tetanus toxoid should be given if not up to date.[1] In 2015, fire and heat resulted in 67 million injuries.[4] This resulted in about 2.9 million hospitalizations and 176,000 deaths.[9][5] Most deaths due to burns occur in the developing world, particularly in Southeast Asia.[3] While large burns can be fatal, treatments developed since 1960 have improved outcomes, especially in children and young adults.[10] In the United States, approximately 96% of those admitted to a burn center survive their injuries.[11] Burns occur at similar frequencies in men and women.[3] The long-term outcome is related to the size of burn and the age of the person affected.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burn
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Aphthous stomatitis
Aphthous stomatitis is a common condition characterized by the repeated formation of benign and non-contagious mouth ulcers (aphthae) in otherwise healthy individuals. The informal term canker sores is also used, mainly in North America, although this may also refer to any mouth ulcer. The cause is not completely understood, but involves a T cell-mediated immune response triggered by a variety of factors. Different individuals have different triggers, which may include nutritional deficiencies, local trauma, stress, hormonal influences, allergies, genetic predisposition or other factors. These ulcers occur periodically and heal completely between attacks. In the majority of cases, the individual ulcers last about 7–10 days, and ulceration episodes occur 3–6 times per year. Most appear on the non-keratinizing epithelial surfaces in the mouth (i.e. anywhere except the attached gingiva, the hard palate and the dorsum of the tongue), although the more severe forms, which are less common, may also involve keratinizing epithelial surfaces. Symptoms range from a minor nuisance to interfering with eating and drinking. The severe forms may be debilitating, even causing weight loss due to malnutrition. The condition is very common, affecting about 20% of the general population to some degree.[1] The onset is often during childhood or adolescence, and the condition usually lasts for several years before gradually disappearing. There is no cure, and treatments aim to manage pain, reduce healing time and reduce the frequency of episodes of ulceration. The term is from Greek: αφθα aphtha meaning "mouth ulcer".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aphthous_stomatitis
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Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
Upper respiratory tract infections (URI or URTI) are illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract including the nose, sinuses, pharynx or larynx. This commonly includes nasal obstruction, sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, and the common cold.[3] Most infections are viral in nature and in other instances the cause is bacterial.[4] Upper respiratory tract infections can also be fungal or helminth in origin, but these are far less common.[5] In 2015, 17.2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections occurred.[1] As of 2014, upper respiratory infections caused about 3,000 deaths down from 4,000 in 1990.[
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_respiratory_tract_infection
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Herpes labialis
Herpes labialis, also known as cold sores, is a type of infection by the herpes simplex virus that affects primarily the lip.[1] Symptoms typically include a burning pain followed by small blisters or sores.[1] The first attack may also be accompanied by fever, sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes.[1][9] The rash usually heal within 10 days, but the virus remains dormant in the facial nerve.[1] The virus may periodically reactivates to create another outbreak of sores in the mouth or lip.[1] The cause is usually herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and occasionally herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2).[1] The infection is typically spread between people by direct non-sexual contact.[6] Attacks can be triggered by sunlight, fever, psychological stress, or a menstrual period.[1][9] Direct contact with the genitals can result in genital herpes.[1] Diagnosis is usually based on symptoms but can be confirmed with specific testing.[1][9] Prevention include avoiding kissing or using the personal items of a person who is infected.[8] A zinc oxide, anesthetic, or antiviral cream appears to decrease the duration of symptoms by a small amount.[1] Antiviral medications may also decrease the frequency of outbreaks.[1][3] About 2.5 per 1000 people are affected in any given year.[1] After one episode about 33% of people develop subsequent episodes.[1] Onset often occurs in those less than 20.[1] In those with recurrent outbreaks, these typically happen less than three times a year.[10] The frequency of outbreaks generally decrease over time.[1]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herpes_labialis
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Common Cold
Common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.[7] The throat, sinuses, and voice box may also be affected.[5] Signs and symptoms may begin less than two days following exposure.[5] They include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, headache, and fever.[2][3] People usually recover in seven to ten days.[2] Some symptoms may last up to three weeks.[6] In those with other health problems, pneumonia may occasionally develop.[2] Well over 200 virus strains are implicated in the cause of the common cold; the rhinoviruses are the most common.[10] They spread through the air during close contact with infected people and indirectly through contact with objects in the environment followed by transfer to the mouth or nose.[2] Risk factors include going to daycare, not sleeping well, and psychological stress.[5] Symptoms are mostly due to the body's immune response to the infection rather than to tissue destruction by the viruses themselves.[11] People with influenza often show similar symptoms as people with a cold, though symptoms are usually more severe in the former.[5] Influenza is less likely to result in a runny nose.[12] There is no vaccine for the common cold. The primary methods of prevention are hand washing; not touching the eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands; and staying away from other sick people.[2] Some evidence supports the use of face masks.[13] No cure for the common cold exists, but the symptoms can be treated.[2] Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen may help with pain.[8] Antibiotics should not be used.[14] Evidence does not support a benefit from cough medicines.[5] The common cold is the most frequent infectious disease in humans.[15] The average adult gets two to four colds a year, while the average child may get six to eight.[9] They occur more commonly during the winter.[2] These infections have been with humanity since ancient times
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_cold
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Constipation
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.[2] The stool is often hard and dry.[4] Other symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, and feeling as if one has not completely passed the bowel movement.[3] Complications from constipation may include hemorrhoids, anal fissure or fecal impaction. The normal frequency of bowel movements in adults is between three per day and three per week.[4] Babies often have three to four bowel movements per day while young children typically have two to three per day.[6] Constipation has many causes. Common causes include slow movement of stool within the colon, irritable bowel syndrome, and pelvic floor disorders. Underlying associated diseases include hypothyroidism, diabetes, Parkinson's disease, celiac disease, colon cancer, diverticulitis, and inflammatory bowel disease.[4][7][8] Medications associated with constipation include opioids, certain antacids, calcium channel blockers, and anticholinergics.[4] Of those taking opioids about 90% develop constipation.[9] Constipation is more concerning when there is weight loss or anemia, blood is present in the stool, there is a history of inflammatory bowel disease or colon cancer in a person's family, or it is of new onset in someone who is older.[10] Treatment of constipation depends on the underlying cause and the duration that it has been present. Measures that may help include drinking enough fluids, eating more fiber, and exercise. If this is not effective, laxatives of the bulk forming agent, osmotic agent, stool softener, or lubricant type may be recommended. Stimulant laxatives are generally reserved for when other types are not effective. Other treatments may include biofeedback or in rare cases surgery.[4] In the general population rates of constipation are 2–30 percent.[5] Among elderly people living in a care home the rate of constipation is 50–75 percent.[9] People spend, in the United States, more than US$250 million on medications for constipation a year.[11]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constipation
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Cough
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes. The cough reflex consists of three phases: an inhalation, a forced exhalation against a closed glottis, and a violent release of air from the lungs following opening of the glottis, usually accompanied by a distinctive sound.[1] Coughing is either voluntary or involuntary. Frequent coughing usually indicates the presence of a disease. Many viruses and bacteria benefit, from an evolutionary perspective, by causing the host to cough, which helps to spread the disease to new hosts. Most of the time, irregular coughing is caused by a respiratory tract infection but can also be triggered by choking, smoking, air pollution,[1] asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, post-nasal drip, chronic bronchitis, lung tumors, heart failure and medications such as ACE inhibitors. Treatment should target the cause; for example, smoking cessation or discontinuing ACE inhibitors. Cough suppressants such as codeine or dextromethorphan are frequently prescribed, but have been demonstrated to have little effect. Other treatment options may target airway inflammation or may promote mucus expectoration. As it is a natural protective reflex, suppressing the cough reflex might have damaging effects, especially if the cough is productive.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cough
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Dandruff
Dandruff is the shedding of dead skin cells from the scalp.[1] As skin cells die, a small amount of flaking is normal; about 487,000 cells/cm2 are released normally after detergent treatment.[2] Some people, however, experience an unusually large amount of flaking either chronically or as a result of certain triggers, up to 800,000 cells/cm2, which can also be accompanied by redness and irritation. Dandruff is a common scalp disorder affecting almost half of the population at the post-pubertal age and of any sex and race. It often causes itching. It has been established that keratinocytes play a key role in the expression and generation of immunological reactions during dandruff formation. The severity of dandruff may fluctuate with season as it often worsens in winter.[2] Dandruff is rare before puberty, peaks in the teens and early twenties, and declines with age thereafter.[3] Most cases of dandruff can be treated with specialized shampoos. There is, however, no known cure.[4] Those affected by dandruff find that it can cause social or self-esteem problems, indicating treatment for both psychological and physiological reasons
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dandruff
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Dark Circles
Periorbital dark circles (also known as dark circles , infraorbital venous stasis or periorbital hyperpigmentation) are dark blemishes around the eyes. There are many causes of this symptom, including heredity and bruising.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periorbital_dark_circles
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Depression
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings, and sense of well-being.[1][2] People with a depressed mood may be notably sad, anxious, or empty; they may also feel notably hopeless, helpless, dejected, or worthless. Other symptoms expressed may include senses of guilt, irritability, or anger.[3][4] Further feelings expressed by these individuals may include feeling ashamed or an expressed restlessness. These individuals may notably lose interest in activities that they once considered pleasurable to family and friends or otherwise experience either a loss of appetite or overeating. Experiencing problems concentrating, remembering general facts or details, otherwise making decisions or experiencing relationship difficulties may also be notable factors in these individuals' depression and may also lead to their attempting or actually committing suicide. In addition to all the aforementioned factors, actions committed by siblings of these individuals may also contribute to the decision-making in individuals experiencing depression or attempting to take their own lives.[5] Expressed insomnia, excessive sleeping, fatigue, and vocalizing general aches, pains, and digestive problems and a reduced energy may also be present in individuals experiencing depression.[6] A depressed mood is a feature of some psychiatric syndromes such as major depressive disorder[2] and dysthymia, but it may also be a normal temporary reaction to life events such as bereavement, a symptom of some bodily ailments or a side effect of some drugs and medical treatments. A DSM diagnosis distinguishes an episode (or 'state') of depression from the habitual (or 'trait') depressive symptoms someone can experience as part of their personality.[7]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depression_(mood)
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Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[8] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus: Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown.[2] Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[9] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The most common cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.[2] Gestational diabetes is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2] Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco. Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with the disease. Type 1 DM must be managed with insulin injections.[2] Type 2 DM may be treated with medications with or without insulin.[6] Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar.[10] Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 DM.[11] Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.[12] As of 2015, an estimated 415 million people had diabetes worldwide,[5] with type 2 DM making up about 90% of the cases.[13][14] This represents 8.3% of the adult population,[14] with equal rates in both women and men.[15] As of 2014, trends suggested the rate would continue to rise.[16] Diabetes at least doubles a person's risk of early death.[2] From 2012 to 2015, approximately 1.5 to 5.0 million deaths each year resulted from diabetes.[6][5] The global economic cost of diabetes in 2014 was estimated to be US$612 billion.[17] In the United States, diabetes cost $245 billion in 2012.[18]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes_mellitus
Natural remedies for:
Dizziness
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.[1] Because the term dizziness is imprecise,[2] it can refer to vertigo, presyncope, disequilibrium,[3] or a non-specific feeling such as giddiness or foolishness.[4] One can induce dizziness by engaging in disorientating activities such as spinning. Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or having one's surroundings spin about them. Many people find vertigo very disturbing and often report associated nausea and vomiting. It represents about 25% of cases of occurrences of dizziness.[5] Disequilibrium is the sensation of being off balance, and is most often characterized by frequent falls in a specific direction. This condition is not often associated with nausea or vomiting. Presyncope is lightheadedness, muscular weakness and feeling faint as opposed to a syncope, which is actually fainting. Non-specific dizziness is often psychiatric in origin. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and can sometimes be brought about by hyperventilation.[4] A stroke is the cause of isolated dizziness in 0.7% of people who present to the emergency room
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dizziness
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Dry Eye Syndrome
Dry eye syndrome (DES), also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), is the condition of having dry eyes.[2] Other associated symptoms include irritation, redness, discharge, and easily fatigued eyes. Blurred vision may also occur.[2] The symptoms can range from mild and occasional to severe and continuous.[3] Scarring of the cornea may occur in some cases without treatment.[2] Dry eye occurs when either the eye does not produce enough tears or when the tears evaporate too quickly.[2] This can result from meibomian gland dysfunction, allergies, pregnancy, Sjogren's syndrome, vitamin A deficiency, LASIK surgery, and certain medications such as antihistamines, some blood pressure medication, hormone replacement therapy, and antidepressants.[2][3] Chronic conjunctivitis such as from tobacco smoke exposure or infection may also lead to the condition.[2] Diagnosis is mostly based on the symptoms though a number of other tests may be used.[4] Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Artificial tears are the usual first line treatment. Wrap around glasses that fit close to the face may decrease tear evaporation. Stopping or changing certain medications may help. The medication ciclosporin or steroid eye drops may be used in some cases. Another option is lacrimal plugs that prevent tears from draining from the surface of the eye. Dry eyes occasionally makes wearing contact lenses impossible.[2] Dry eye syndrome is a common eye disease.[3] It affects 5-34% of people to some degree depending on the population looked at.[5] Among older people it affects up to 70%.[6] In China it affects about 17% of people.[7] The phrase "keratoconjunctivitis sicca" means "dryness of the cornea and conjunctiva" in Latin.[
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_eye_syndrome
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Xeroderma
Xeroderma or xerodermia (also known as xerosis cutis[1]), derived from the Greek words for "dry skin", is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients or moisturizers. Xeroderma occurs most commonly on the scalp, lower legs, arms, hands, the knuckles, the sides of the abdomen, and thighs. Symptoms most associated with xeroderma are scaling (the visible peeling of the outer skin layer), itching, and skin cracking
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xeroderma
Natural remedies for:
Otitis externa
Otitis externa, also known as swimmer's ear,[1] is an inflammation of the ear canal.[2] It often presents with ear pain, swelling of the ear canal, and occasionally decreased hearing.[2] Typically there is pain with movement of the outer ear. A high fever is typically not present except in severe cases.[3] Otitis externa may be acute (meaning less than six weeks) or chronic (meaning more than three months) in duration.[2] Acute cases are typically due to a bacterial infection while chronic cases are often due to allergies or autoimmune disorders. Risk factors for acute cases include swimming, minor trauma from cleaning, using hearing aids or ear plugs, and other skin problems like psoriasis or dermatitis.[2][3] Those with diabetes are at risk of a severe form of disease known as malignant otitis externa. Diagnosis is based on the signs and symptoms. Culturing the ear canal may be useful in chronic or severe cases.[2] Acetic acid ear drops may be used as a preventative measure.[3] Treatment of acute cases is typically with antibiotic drops such as ofloxacin or acetic acid.[2][3] Steroid drops may be used in addition to antibiotics. Pain medications such as ibuprofen may be used for the pain. Antibiotics by mouth are not recommended unless the person has poor immune function or there is infection of the skin around the ear. Typically improvement occurs within a day of starting treatment. Treatment of chronic cases depends on the cause.[2] Otitis externa affects 1-3% of people a year with more than 95% of cases being acute.[2] About 10% of people are affected at some point in their life.[3] It occurs most commonly among children between the ages of seven and twelve and among the elderly.[2][4] It occurs with near equal frequency in males and females.[4] Those who live in warm and wet climates are more often affected
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otitis_externa
Natural remedies for:
Dermatitis
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.[1] These diseases are characterized by itchiness, red skin, and a rash.[1] In cases of short duration there may be small blisters while in long-term cases the skin may become thickened.[1] The area of skin involved can vary from small to the entire body.[1][2] Dermatitis is a group of skin conditions that includes atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis.[1][2] The exact cause of dermatitis is often unclear.[2] Cases are believed to often involve a combination of irritation, allergy, and poor venous return. The type of dermatitis is generally determined by the person's history and the location of the rash. For example, irritant dermatitis often occurs on the hands of people who frequently get them wet. Allergic contact dermatitis, however, can occur following brief exposures to substances a person is sensitive to.[1] Treatment of atopic dermatitis is typically with moisturizers and steroid creams.[4] The steroid creams should generally be of mid- to high strength and used for less than two weeks at a time as side effects can occur.[6] Antibiotics may be required if there are signs of skin infection.[2] Contact dermatitis is typically treated by avoiding the allergen or irritant.[7][8] Antihistamines may help with sleep and to decrease nighttime scratching.[2] Dermatitis was estimated to affect 245 million people globally in 2015.[5] Atopic dermatitis is the most common type and generally starts in childhood.[1][2] In the United States it affects about 10-30% of people.[2] Contact dermatitis is twice as common in females than males.[9] Allergic contact dermatitis affects about 7% of people at some point in time.[10] Irritant contact dermatitis is common, especially among people who do certain jobs; exact rates are unclear.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dermatitis
Natural remedies for:
Endometriosis
Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue that normally grows inside the uterus (endometrium) grows outside it.[7][8] Most often this is on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and tissue around the uterus and ovaries; however, in rare cases it may also occur in other parts of the body.[2] The main symptoms are pelvic pain and infertility. Nearly half of those affected have chronic pelvic pain, while in 70% pain occurs during menstruation. Pain during sex is also common. Infertility occurs in up to half of women affected.[1] Less common symptoms include urinary or bowel symptoms. About 25% of women have no symptoms.[1] Endometriosis can have both social and psychological effects.[9] The cause is not entirely clear.[1] Risk factors include having a family history of the condition. The areas of endometriosis bleed each month, resulting in inflammation and scarring.[2][1] The growths due to endometriosis are not cancer. Diagnosis is usually based on symptoms in combination with medical imaging. Biopsy is the most sure method of diagnosis.[2] Other causes of similar symptoms include pelvic inflammatory disease, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis, and fibromyalgia.[1] Tentative evidence suggests that the use of combined oral contraceptives reduces the risk of endometriosis.[4] Exercise and avoiding large amounts of alcohol may also be preventive.[2] There is no cure for endometriosis, but a number of treatments may improve symptoms.[1] This may include pain medication, hormonal treatments, or surgery. The recommended pain medication is usually an NSAID such as naproxen. Taking the active component of the birth control pill continuously or using an intrauterine device with progestogen may also be useful. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist may improve the ability of those who are infertile to get pregnant. Surgical removal of endometriosis may be used to treat those whose symptoms are not manageable with other treatments.[2] Endometriosis affected 10.8 million as of 2015.[5] This is roughly 6–10% of women.[1] It is most common in those in their thirties and forties; however, it can begin in girls as early as 8 years old.[2][3] It results in few deaths.[10] Endometriosis was first determined to be a separate condition in the 1920s. Before that time endometriosis and adenomyosis were considered together. It is unclear who first described the disease.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endometriosis
Natural remedies for:
Erectile dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity in humans. A penile erection is the hydraulic effect of blood entering and being retained in sponge-like bodies within the penis. The process is most often initiated as a result of sexual arousal, when signals are transmitted from the brain to nerves in the penis. The most important organic causes of impotence are cardiovascular disease and diabetes, neurological problems (for example, trauma from prostatectomy surgery), hormonal insufficiencies (hypogonadism) and drug side effects. Psychological impotence is where erection or penetration fails due to thoughts or feelings (psychological reasons) rather than physical impossibility; this is somewhat less frequent but can often be helped. Notably, in psychological impotence, there is a strong response to placebo treatment. Erectile dysfunction can have severe psychological consequences as it can be tied to relationship difficulties and masculine self-image. Besides treating the underlying causes such as potassium deficiency or arsenic contamination of drinking water, the first line treatment of erectile dysfunction consists of a trial of PDE5 inhibitor drugs (the first of which was sildenafil or Viagra). In some cases, treatment can involve prostaglandin tablets in the urethra, injections into the penis, a penile prosthesis, a penis pump or vascular reconstructive surgery.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erectile_dysfunction
Natural remedies for:
Fatigue
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness which is distinct from weakness, and has a gradual onset. Unlike weakness, fatigue can be alleviated by periods of rest. Fatigue can have physical or mental causes. Physical fatigue is the transient inability of a muscle to maintain optimal physical performance, and is made more severe by intense physical exercise.[1][2][3] Mental fatigue is a transient decrease in maximal cognitive performance resulting from prolonged periods of cognitive activity. It can manifest as somnolence, lethargy, or directed attention fatigue.[4] Medically, fatigue is a non-specific symptom, which means that it has many possible causes and accompanies many different conditions. Fatigue is considered a symptom, rather than a sign because it is a subjective feeling reported by the patient, rather than an objective one that can be observed by others. Fatigue and 'feelings of fatigue' are often confused.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatigue_(medical)
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Fatty liver
Fatty liver is a reversible condition wherein large vacuoles of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells via the process of steatosis (i.e., abnormal retention of lipids within a cell). Despite having multiple causes, fatty liver can be considered a single disease that occurs worldwide in those with excessive alcohol intake and the obese (with or without effects of insulin resistance). The condition is also associated with other diseases that influence fat metabolism.[1] When this process of fat metabolism is disrupted, the fat can accumulate in the liver in excessive amounts, thus resulting in a fatty liver.[2] It is difficult to distinguish alcoholic FLD from nonalcoholic FLD, and both show microvesicular and macrovesicular fatty changes at different stages. Accumulation of fat may also be accompanied by a progressive inflammation of the liver (hepatitis), called steatohepatitis. By considering the contribution by alcohol, fatty liver may be termed alcoholic steatosis or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and the more severe forms as alcoholic steatohepatitis (part of alcoholic liver disease) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatty_liver
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Female Facial Hair
Facial hair is hair grown on the face, usually on the chin, cheeks, and upper lip region. It is typically a secondary sex characteristic of human males. Men typically start developing facial hair in the later years of puberty or adolescence, between seventeen and twenty years of age, and most do not finish developing a full adult beard until their early twenties or later.[1] This varies, as boys may first develop facial hair between fourteen and sixteen years of age, and boys as young as eleven have been known to develop facial hair. Women are also capable of developing facial hair, especially after menopause, though typically significantly less than men. Men may style their facial hair into beards, moustaches, goatees or sideburns; others completely shave their facial hair. The term whiskers, when used to refer to human facial hair, indicates the hair on the chin and cheeks.[2]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facial_hair
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Fever
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response,[6] is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.[4][5] There is not a single agreed-upon upper limit for normal temperature with sources using values between 37.5 and 38.3 °C (99.5 and 100.9 °F).[6][7] The increase in set-point triggers increased muscle contractions and causes a feeling of cold.[1] This results in greater heat production and efforts to conserve heat.[2] When the set-point temperature returns to normal, a person feels hot, becomes flushed, and may begin to sweat.[2] Rarely a fever may trigger a febrile seizure. This is more common in young children.[3] Fevers do not typically go higher than 41 to 42 °C (105.8 to 107.6 °F).[5] A fever can be caused by many medical conditions ranging from not serious to potentially serious. This includes viral, bacterial and parasitic infections such as the common cold, urinary tract infections, meningitis, malaria and appendicitis among others. Non-infectious causes include vasculitis, deep vein thrombosis, side effects of medication, and cancer among others.[11] It differs from hyperthermia, in that hyperthermia is an increase in body temperature over the temperature set-point, due to either too much heat production or not enough heat loss.[6] Treatment to reduce fever is generally not required.[1][8] Treatment of associated pain and inflammation, however, may be useful and help a person rest.[8] Medications such as ibuprofen or paracetamol (acetaminophen) may help with this as well as lower temperature.[8][9] Measures such as putting a cool damp cloth on the forehead and having a slightly warm bath are not useful and may simply make a person more uncomfortable.[8] Children younger than three months require medical attention, as might people with serious medical problems such as a compromised immune system or people with other symptoms.[12] Hyperthermia does require treatment.[1] Fever is one of the most common medical signs. It is part of about 30% of healthcare visits by children[1] and occurs in up to 75% of adults who are seriously sick.[10] While fever is a useful defense mechanism, treating fever does not appear to worsen outcomes.[13][14] Fever is viewed with greater concern by parents and healthcare professionals than it usually deserves, a phenomenon known as fever phobia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fever
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Uterine fibroid
Uterine fibroids, also known as uterine leiomyomas or fibroids, are benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus.[1] Most women have no symptoms while others may have painful or heavy periods.[1] If large enough, they may push on the bladder causing a frequent need to urinate.[1] They may also cause pain during sex or lower back pain.[1] A woman can have one uterine fibroid or many.[1] Occasionally, fibroids may make it difficult to become pregnant, although this is uncommon.[1] The exact cause of uterine fibroids is unclear.[1] However, fibroids run in families and appear to be partly determined by hormone levels.[1] Risk factors include obesity and eating red meat.[1] Diagnosis can be performed by pelvic examination or medical imaging.[1] Treatment is typically not needed if there are no symptoms.[1] NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, may help with pain and bleeding while paracetamol (acetaminophen) may help with pain.[1][3] Iron supplements may be needed in those with heavy periods.[1] Medications of the gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist class may decrease the size of the fibroids but are expensive and associated with side effects.[1] If greater symptoms are present, surgery to remove the fibroid or uterus may help.[1] Uterine artery embolization may also help.[1] Cancerous versions of fibroids are very rare and are known as leiomyosarcomas.[1] They do not appear to develop from benign fibroids.[1] About 20% to 80% of women develop fibroids by the age of 50.[1] In 2013, it was estimated that 171 million women were affected.[4] They are typically found during the middle and later reproductive years.[1] After menopause, they usually decrease in size.[1] In the United States, uterine fibroids are a common reason for surgical removal of the uterus.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uterine_fibroid
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Influenza
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.[1] Symptoms can be mild to severe.[4] The most common symptoms include: a high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing, and feeling tired. These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. The cough, however, may last for more than two weeks.[1] In children, there may be nausea and vomiting, but these are not common in adults. Nausea and vomiting occur more commonly in the unrelated infection gastroenteritis, which is sometimes inaccurately referred to as "stomach flu" or "24-hour flu".[5] Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure.[4][2] Three types of influenza viruses affect people, called Type A, Type B, and Type C.[2] Usually, the virus is spread through the air from coughs or sneezes.[1] This is believed to occur mostly over relatively short distances.[6] It can also be spread by touching surfaces contaminated by the virus and then touching the mouth or eyes.[4][6] A person may be infectious to others both before and during the time they are showing symptoms.[4] The infection may be confirmed by testing the throat, sputum, or nose for the virus. A number of rapid tests are available; however, people may still have the infection if the results are negative. A type of polymerase chain reaction that detects the virus's RNA is more accurate.[2] Frequent hand washing reduces the risk of infection because the virus is inactivated by soap.[3] Wearing a surgical mask is also useful.[3] Yearly vaccinations against influenza are recommended by the World Health Organization for those at high risk. The vaccine is usually effective against three or four types of influenza.[1] It is usually well tolerated. A vaccine made for one year may not be useful in the following year, since the virus evolves rapidly. Antiviral drugs such as the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, among others, have been used to treat influenza.[1] Their benefits in those who are otherwise healthy do not appear to be greater than their risks.[7] No benefit has been found in those with other health problems.[7][8] Influenza spreads around the world in a yearly outbreak, resulting in about three to five million cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 deaths.[1] In the Northern and Southern parts of the world, outbreaks occur mainly in winter while in areas around the equator outbreaks may occur at any time of the year.[1] Death occurs mostly in the young, the old and those with other health problems.[1] Larger outbreaks known as pandemics are less frequent.[2] In the 20th century, three influenza pandemics occurred: Spanish influenza in 1918 (~50 million deaths), Asian influenza in 1957 (two million deaths), and Hong Kong influenza in 1968 (one million deaths).[9] The World Health Organization declared an outbreak of a new type of influenza A/H1N1 to be a pandemic in June 2009.[10] Influenza may also affect other animals, including pigs, horses and birds.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza
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Folliculitis
Folliculitis is the infection and inflammation of one or more hair follicles. The condition may occur anywhere on the skin except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. The rash may appear as pimples that come to white tips on the face, chest, back, arms, legs, buttocks, and head.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folliculitis
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Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning)[1] is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food,[2] as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes. Symptoms vary depending on the cause, and are described below in this article. A few broad generalizations can be made, e.g.: The incubation period ranges from hours to days, depending on the cause and on how much was consumed. The incubation period tends to cause sufferers to not associate the symptoms with the item consumed, and so to cause sufferers to attribute the symptoms to gastroenteritis for example. Symptoms often include vomiting, fever, and aches, and may include diarrhea. Bouts of vomiting can be repeated with an extended delay in between, because even if infected food was eliminated from the stomach in the first bout, microbes (if applicable) can pass through the stomach into the intestine via cells lining the intestinal walls and begin to multiply. Some types of microbes stay in the intestine, some produce a toxin that is absorbed into the bloodstream, and some can directly invade deeper body tissues.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foodborne_illness
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Gallstones
A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components.[1] The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of stones in the gallbladder or to the diseases caused by gallstones.[4] Most people with gallstones (about 80%) never have symptoms.[1][2] In 1–4% of those with gallstones, a crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic, occurs each year.[3] Complications of gallstones include inflammation of the gallbladder, inflammation of the pancreas, and liver inflammation.[1][3] Symptoms of these complications may include pain of more than five hours duration, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, or tea-color urine.[1] Risk factors for gallstones include birth control pills, pregnancy, a family history of gallstones, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, or rapid weight loss. Gallstones are formed in the gallbladder, typically from either cholesterol or bilirubin.[1] Gallstones may be suspected based on symptoms.[3] Diagnosis is then typically confirmed by ultrasound. Complications may be detected on blood tests.[1] Prevention is by maintaining a healthy weight and eating a diet high in fiber and low in simple carbohydrates. If there are no symptoms, treatment is usually not needed. In those who are having gallbladder attacks, surgery to remove the gallbladder is typically recommended. This can be either done through several small incisions or through a single larger incision. Surgery is typically done under general anesthesia. In those who are unable to have surgery, medication to try to dissolve the stones or shock wave lithotripsy may be tried.[1] In the developed world, 10–15% of adults have gallstones.[3] Rates in many parts of Africa, however, are as low as 3%.[5] Gallbladder and biliary related diseases occurred in about 104 million people (1.6%) in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths.[6][7] Women more commonly have stones than men and they occur more commonly after the age of 40. Certain ethnic groups have gallstones more often than others. For example, 48% of American Indians have gallstones. Once the gallbladder is removed, outcomes are generally good.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallstone
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Flatulence
Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent",[1] which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".[2] The root of these words is from the Latin flatus – "a blowing, a breaking wind".[3] Flatus is also the medical word for gas generated in the stomach or bowels.[4] Despite these standard definitions, a proportion of intestinal gas may be swallowed environmental air, and hence flatus is not totally generated in the stomach or bowels. The scientific study of this area of medicine is termed flatology.[5] It is normal for humans to pass flatus through the rectum, although the volume and frequency may vary greatly between individuals. It is also normal for intestinal gas passed through the rectum to have a characteristic feculent smell, although this too may vary in concentration. Flatus is brought to the rectum by specialised contractions of the muscles in the intestines and colon. The noises commonly associated with flatulence ("blowing a raspberry") are caused by the vibration of anal sphincters, and occasionally by the closed buttocks. Both the noise and smell associated with flatus leaving the anus can be sources of embarrassment or comedy in many cultures. There are five general symptoms related to intestinal gas: pain, bloating and abdominal distension, excessive flatus volume, excessive flatus smell and gas incontinence. Furthermore, eructation ("an act or instance of belching", colloquially known as "burping") is sometimes included under the topic of flatulence.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatulence
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Glaucoma
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.[1] The most common type is open-angle glaucoma with less common types including closed-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma develops slowly over time and there is no pain. Side vision may begin to decrease followed by central vision resulting in blindness if not treated.[1] Closed-angle glaucoma can present gradually or suddenly.[2] The sudden presentation may involve severe eye pain, blurred vision, mid-dilated pupil, redness of the eye, and nausea.[1][2] Vision loss from glaucoma, once it has occurred, is permanent.[1] Risk factors for glaucoma include increased pressure in the eye, a family history of the condition, migraines, high blood pressure, and obesity.[1] For eye pressures a value of greater than 21 mmHg or 2.8 kPa is often used with higher pressures leading to a greater risk.[2][5] However, some may have high eye pressure for years and never develop damage.[2] Conversely, optic nerve damage may occur with normal pressure, known as normal-tension glaucoma.[6] The mechanism of open-angle glaucoma is believed to be slow exit of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork while in closed-angle glaucoma the iris blocks the trabecular meshwork.[2] Diagnosis is by a dilated eye examination.[1] Often the optic nerve shows an abnormal amount of cupping.[2] If treated early it is possible to slow or stop the progression of disease with medication, laser treatment, or surgery.[1] The goal of these treatments is to decrease eye pressure. A number of different classes of glaucoma medication are available. Laser treatments may be effective in both open-angle and closed-angle glaucoma. A number of types of glaucoma surgeries may be used in people who do not respond sufficiently to other measures.[2] Treatment of closed-angle glaucoma is a medical emergency.[1] About 6 to 67 million people have glaucoma globally.[2][4] The disease affects about 2 million people in the United States.[2] It occurs more commonly among older people.[1] Closed-angle glaucoma is more common in women.[2] Glaucoma has been called the "silent thief of sight" because the loss of vision usually occurs slowly over a long period of time.[7] Worldwide, glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness after cataracts.[2][8] The word "glaucoma" is from ancient Greek glaukos which means blue, green, or gray.[9] In English, the word was used as early as 1587 but did not become commonly used until after 1850, when the development of the ophthalmoscope allowed people to see the optic nerve damage.[
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glaucoma
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Gout
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.[3] Pain typically comes on rapidly in less than twelve hours.[4] The joint at the base of the big toe is affected in about half of cases.[8] It may also result in tophi, kidney stones, or urate nephropathy.[4] Gout is due to elevated levels of uric acid in the blood. This occurs due to a combination of diet and genetic factors. At high levels, uric acid crystallizes and the crystals deposit in joints, tendons and surrounding tissues, resulting in an attack of gout.[4] Gout occurs more commonly in those who eat a lot of meat, drink a lot of beer, or are overweight.[5][4] Diagnosis of gout may be confirmed by seeing the crystals in joint fluid or tophus. Blood uric acid levels may be normal during an attack.[4] Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, or colchicine improves symptoms. Once the acute attack subsides, levels of uric acid can be lowered via lifestyle changes and in those with frequent attacks, allopurinol or probenecid provides long-term prevention.[4] Taking vitamin C and eating a diet high in low fat dairy products may be preventive.[9] Gout affects about 1 to 2% of the Western population at some point in their lives. It has become more common in recent decades. This is believed to be due to increasing risk factors in the population, such as metabolic syndrome, longer life expectancy and changes in diet. Older males are most commonly affected.[4] Gout was historically known as "the disease of kings" or "rich man's disease".[4][10] It has been recognized at least since the time of the ancient Egyptians.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gout
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Periodontitis
Periodontitis, also known as gum disease and pyorrhea, is a set of inflammatory diseases affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth. Periodontitis involves progressive loss of the alveolar bone around the teeth, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Periodontitis is caused by microorganisms that adhere to and grow on the tooth's surfaces, along with an over-aggressive immune response against these microorganisms. A diagnosis of periodontitis is established by inspecting the soft gum tissues around the teeth with a probe (i.e., a clinical examination) and by evaluating the patient's X-ray films (i.e., a radiographic examination), to determine the amount of bone loss around the teeth.[1] Specialists in the treatment of periodontitis are periodontists; their field is known as "periodontology" or "periodontics".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodontitis
Natural remedies for:
Head louse
The head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) is an obligate ectoparasite of humans that causes head lice infestation (pediculosis capitis).[1] Head lice are wingless insects spending their entire life on the human scalp and feeding exclusively on human blood.[1] Humans are the only known hosts of this specific parasite, while chimpanzees host a closely related species, Pediculus schaeffi. Other species of lice infest most orders of mammals and all orders of birds,[1] as well as other parts of the human body. Lice differ from other hematophagic ectoparasites such as fleas in spending their entire life cycle on a host.[2] Head lice cannot fly, and their short stumpy legs render them incapable of jumping, or even walking efficiently on flat surfaces.[2] The non-disease-carrying head louse differs from the related disease-carrying body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) in preferring to attach eggs to scalp hair rather than to clothing. The two subspecies are morphologically almost identical but do not normally interbreed, although they will do so in laboratory conditions. From genetic studies, they are thought to have diverged as subspecies about 30,000–110,000 years ago, when many humans began to wear a significant amount of clothing.[3][4] A much more distantly related species of hair-clinging louse, the pubic or crab louse (Pthirus pubis), also infests humans. It is visually different from the other two species and is much closer in appearance to the lice which infest other primates.[5] Lice infestation of any part of the body is known as pediculosis.[6] Head lice (especially in children) have been, and still are, subject to various eradication campaigns. Unlike body lice, head lice are not the vectors of any known diseases. Except for rare secondary infections that result from scratching at bites, head lice are harmless, and they have been regarded by some as essentially a cosmetic rather than a medical problem. It has even been suggested that head lice infestations might be beneficial in helping to foster a natural immune response against lice which helps humans in defense against the far more dangerous body louse, which is capable of transmission of dangerous diseases.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Head_louse
Natural remedies for:
Headache
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck. It occurs in migraines ( sharp, or throbbing pains), tension-type headaches, and cluster headaches.[1] Frequent headaches can affect relationships and employment.[1] There is also an increased risk of depression in those with severe headaches.[1] Headaches can occur as a result of many conditions whether serious or not. There are a number of different classification systems for headaches. The most well-recognized is that of the International Headache Society. Causes of headaches may include fatigue, sleep deprivation, stress, the effects of medications, the effects of recreational drugs, viral infections, loud noises, common colds, head injury, rapid ingestion of a very cold food or beverage, and dental or sinus issues. Treatment of a headache depends on the underlying cause, but commonly involves pain medication. Some form of headache is one of the most commonly experienced of all physical discomforts. About half of adults have a headache in a given year.[1] Tension headaches are the most common, affecting about 1.6 billion people (21.8% of the population) followed by migraine headaches which affect about 848 million (11.7%).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Headache
Natural remedies for:
acid indigestion
Heartburn, also known as acid indigestion,[2] is a burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen.[3][4][5] The pain[citation needed] often rises in the chest and may radiate to the neck, throat, or angle of the jaw. Heartburn is usually due to regurgitation of gastric acid (gastric reflux) into the esophagus and is the major symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).[6] In about 0.6% of cases it is a symptom of ischemic heart disease.[7]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heartburn
Natural remedies for:
Hypertension
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.[8] High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms.[1] Long term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, and chronic kidney disease.[2][3] High blood pressure is classified as either primary (essential) high blood pressure or secondary high blood pressure.[4] About 90–95% of cases are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors.[4][5] Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol.[1][4] The remaining 5–10% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood pressure, defined as high blood pressure due to an identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney arteries, an endocrine disorder, or the use of birth control pills.[4] Blood pressure is expressed by two measurements, the systolic and diastolic pressures, which are the maximum and minimum pressures, respectively.[1] Normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100–140 millimeters mercury (mmHg) systolic and 60–90 mmHg diastolic.[9] High blood pressure is present if the resting blood pressure is persistently at or above 140/90 mmHg for most adults.[4] Different numbers apply to children.[10] Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over a 24-hour period appears more accurate than office best blood pressure measurement.[8][4] Lifestyle changes and medications can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of health complications.[6] Lifestyle changes include weight loss, decreased salt intake, physical exercise, and a healthy diet.[4] If lifestyle changes are not sufficient then blood pressure medications are used.[6] Up to three medications can control blood pressure in 90% of people.[4] The treatment of moderately high arterial blood pressure (defined as >160/100 mmHg) with medications is associated with an improved life expectancy.[11] The effect of treatment of blood pressure between 140/90 mmHg and 160/100 mmHg is less clear, with some reviews finding benefit[12][13] and others finding a lack of evidence for benefit.[14] High blood pressure affects between 16 and 37% of the population globally.[4] In 2010 hypertension was believed to have been a factor in 18% of all deaths (9.4 million globally).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertension
Natural remedies for:
Hypercholesterolemia
Hypercholesterolemia, also called dyslipidemia, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.[1] It is a form of high blood lipids and "hyperlipoproteinemia" (elevated levels of lipoproteins in the blood).[1] Elevated levels of non-HDL cholesterol and LDL in the blood may be a consequence of diet, obesity, inherited (genetic) diseases (such as LDL receptor mutations in familial hypercholesterolemia), or the presence of other diseases such as diabetes and an underactive thyroid.[1] Cholesterol is one of three major classes of lipids which all animal cells use to construct their membranes and is thus manufactured by all animal cells. Plant cells do not manufacture cholesterol. It is also the precursor of the steroid hormones and bile acids. Since cholesterol is insoluble in water, it is transported in the blood plasma within protein particles (lipoproteins). Lipoproteins are classified by their density: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL).[2] All the lipoproteins carry cholesterol, but elevated levels of the lipoproteins other than HDL (termed non-HDL cholesterol), particularly LDL-cholesterol, are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.[3] In contrast, higher levels of HDL cholesterol are protective.[4] Avoiding trans fats and replacing saturated fats in adult diets with polyunsaturated fats are recommended dietary measures to reduce total blood cholesterol and LDL in adults.[5][6] In people with very high cholesterol (e.g. familial hypercholesterolemia), diet is often not sufficient to achieve the desired lowering of LDL, and lipid-lowering medications are usually required.[7] If necessary, other treatments such as LDL apheresis or even surgery (for particularly severe subtypes of familial hypercholesterolemia) are performed.[7] About 34 million adults in the United States have high blood cholesterol
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypercholesterolemia
Natural remedies for:
Hives
Hives also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.[1] They may also burn or sting. Often the patches of rash move around. Typically they last a few days and do not leave any long-lasting skin changes. Fewer than 5% of cases last for more than six weeks. The condition frequently recurs.[2] Hives frequently occur following an infection or as a result of an allergic reaction such as to medication, insect bites, or food.[2] Psychological stress, cold temperature, or vibration may also be a trigger.[1][2] In half of cases the cause remains unknown.[2] Risk factors include having conditions such as hay fever or asthma.[3] Diagnosis is typically based on the appearance. Patch testing may be useful to determine the allergy.[2] Prevention is by avoiding whatever it is that causes the condition. Treatment is typically with antihistamines such as diphenhydramine and ranitidine. In severe cases, corticosteroids or leukotriene inhibitors may also be used. Keeping the environmental temperature cool is also useful. For cases that last more than six weeks immunosuppressants such as ciclosporin may be used.[2] About 20% of people are affected.[2] Cases of short duration occur equally in males and females while cases of long duration are more common in females. Cases of short duration are more common among children while cases of long duration are more common among those who are middle aged. Hives have been described at least since the time of Hippocrates.[4] The term urticaria is from the Latin urtica meaning "nettle"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hives
Natural remedies for:
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.[1] These symptoms occur over a long time, often years.[2] It has been classified into four main types depending on if diarrhea is common, constipation is common, both are common, or neither occurs very often (IBS-D, IBS-C, IBS-M, or IBS-U respectively).[1] IBS negatively affects quality of life and may result in missed school or work.[7] Disorders such as anxiety, major depression, and chronic fatigue syndrome are common among people with IBS.[1][8] The causes of IBS are not clear.[2] Theories include combinations of gut–brain axis problems, gut motility disorders, pain sensitivity, infections including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, neurotransmitters, genetic factors, and food sensitivity.[2] Onset may be triggered by an intestinal infection,[9] or stressful life event.[10] IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder.[1] Diagnosis is based on signs and symptoms in the absence of worrisome features.[3] Worrisome features include onset at greater than 50 years of age, weight loss, blood in the stool, or a family history of inflammatory bowel disease.[3] Other conditions that may present similarly include celiac disease, microscopic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, bile acid malabsorption, and colon cancer.[3] There is no cure for IBS.[4] Treatment is carried out to improve symptoms.[4] This may include dietary changes, medication, probiotics, and counseling.[4] Dietary measures include increasing soluble fiber intake, a gluten free diet, or a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP).[3][11] The medication loperamide may be used to help with diarrhea while laxatives may be used to help with constipation.[3] Antidepressants may improve overall symptoms and pain.[3] Patient education and a good doctor–patient relationship are an important part of care.[3][12] About 10 to 15% of people in the developed world are believed to be affected by IBS.[1][6] It is more common in South America and less common in Southeast Asia.[3] It is twice as common in women as men and typically occurs before age 45.[1] The condition appears to become less common with age.[3] IBS does not affect life expectancy or lead to other serious diseases.[5] The first description of the condition was in 1820 while the current term "irritable bowel syndrome" came into use in 1944.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irritable_bowel_syndrome
Natural remedies for:
Kidney stone
Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.[2] Kidney stones typically form in the kidney and leave the body in the urine stream. A small stone may pass without causing symptoms.[2] If a stone grows to more than 5 millimeters (0.2 in) it can cause blockage of the ureter resulting in severe pain in the lower back or abdomen.[2][7] A stone may also result in blood in the urine, vomiting, or painful urination.[2] About half of people will have another stone within ten years.[8] Most stones form due to a combination of genetics and environmental factors.[2] Risk factors include high urine calcium levels, obesity, certain foods, some medications, calcium supplements, hyperparathyroidism, gout and not drinking enough fluids.[2][8] Stones form in the kidney when minerals in urine are at high concentration. The diagnosis is usually based on symptoms, urine testing, and medical imaging. Blood tests may also be useful. Stones are typically classified by their location: nephrolithiasis (in the kidney), ureterolithiasis (in the ureter), cystolithiasis (in the bladder), or by what they are made of (calcium oxalate, uric acid, struvite, cystine).[2] In those who have had stones, prevention is by drinking fluids such that more than two liters of urine are produced per day. If this is not effective enough, thiazide diuretic, citrate, or allopurinol may be taken. It is recommended that soft drinks containing phosphoric acid (typically colas) be avoided.[4] When a stone causes no symptoms, no treatment is needed.[2] Otherwise pain control is usually the first measure, using medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opioids.[7][9] Larger stones may be helped to pass with the medication tamsulosin[10] or may require procedures such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy.[2] Between 1% and 15% of people globally are affected by kidney stones at some point in their life.[8] In 2015, 22.1 million cases occurred,[5] resulting in about 16,100 deaths.[6] They have become more common in the Western world since the 1970s.[8] Generally, more men are affected than women.[2] Kidney stones have affected humans throughout history with descriptions of surgery to remove them dating from as early as 600 BC.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kidney_stone_disease
Natural remedies for:
Hypotension
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.[1] Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood. A systolic blood pressure of less than 90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or diastolic of less than 60 mm Hg is generally considered to be hypotension.[2][3] However, in practice, blood pressure is considered too low only if noticeable symptoms are present.[4] Hypotension is the opposite of hypertension, which is high blood pressure. It is best understood as a physiological state, rather than a disease. Severely low blood pressure can deprive the brain and other vital organs of oxygen and nutrients, leading to a life-threatening condition called shock. For some people who exercise and are in top physical condition, low blood pressure is a sign of good health and fitness.[5] For many people, excessively low blood pressure can cause dizziness and fainting or indicate serious heart, endocrine or neurological disorders. Treatment of hypotension may include the use of intravenous fluids or vasopressors. When using vasopressors, trying to achieve a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of greater than 70 mmHg does not appear to result in better outcomes than trying to achieve a MAP of greater than 65 mm Hg in adults.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypotension
Natural remedies for:
Lymphedema, lymphatic edema, lymphoedema
Lymphedema, also known as lymphoedema and lymphatic edema, is a condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system, which normally returns interstitial fluid to the thoracic duct, then the bloodstream. The condition can be inherited or can be caused by a birth defect, though it is frequently caused by cancer treatments and by parasitic infections. Though incurable and progressive, a number of treatments can ameliorate symptoms. Tissues with lymphedema are at high risk of infection.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphedema
Natural remedies for:
Dysmenorrhea
Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, or menstrual cramps, is pain during menstruation.[1][2] It usually begins around the time that menstruation begins. Symptoms typically last less than three days. The pain is usually in the pelvis or lower abdomen. Other symptoms may include back pain, diarrhea, or nausea.[1] In young women painful periods often occur without an underlying problem. In older women it is more often due to an underlying issues such as uterine fibroids, adenomyosis, or endometriosis.[3] It is more common among those with heavy periods, irregular periods, whose periods started before twelve years of age, or who have a low body weight.[1] A pelvic exam in those who are sexually active and ultrasound may be useful to help in diagnosis.[1] Conditions that should be ruled out include ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, interstitial cystitis, and chronic pelvic pain.[1] Dysmenorrhea occurs less often in those who exercise regularly and those who have children early in life.[1] Treatment may include the use of a heating pad.[3] Medications that may help include NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, hormonal birth control, and the IUD with progestogen.[1][3] Taking vitamin B or magnesium may help.[2] Evidence for yoga, acupuncture, and massage is insufficient.[1] Surgery may be useful if certain underlying problems are present.[2] Dysmenorrhea is estimated to occur in 20% to 90% of women of reproductive age.[1] It is the most common menstrual disorder.[2] Typically it starts within a year of the first menstrual period.[1] When there is no underlying cause often the pain improves with age or following having a child
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dysmenorrhea
Natural remedies for:
Onychomycosis
Onychomycosis, also known as tinea unguium, is a fungal infection of the nail.[2] This condition may affect toenails or fingernails, but toenail infections are particularly common. Treatment may be based on the signs.[3] Treatment may be with the medication terbinafine.[3] It occurs in about 10 percent of the adult population.[4] It is the most common disease of the nails and constitutes about half of all nail abnormalities.[5] The term is from Ancient Greek ὄνυξ ónux "nail", μύκης múkēs "fungus" and -ωσις ōsis "functional disease."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onychomycosis
Natural remedies for:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premenstrual_syndrome
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to physical and emotional symptoms that occur in the one to two weeks before a woman's period. Symptoms often vary between women and resolve around the start of bleeding. Common symptoms include acne, tender breasts, bloating, feeling tired, irritability, and mood changes. Often symptoms are present for around six days. A woman's pattern of symptoms may change over time.[2] Symptoms do not occur during pregnancy or following menopause.[1] Diagnosis requires a consistent pattern of emotional and physical symptoms occurring after ovulation and before menstruation to a degree that interferes with normal life. Emotional symptoms must not be present during the initial part of the menstrual cycle.[3] A daily list of symptoms over a few months may help in diagnosis. Other disorders that cause similar symptoms need to be excluded before a diagnosis is made.[2] The cause of PMS is unknown. Some symptoms may be worsened by a high-salt diet, alcohol, or caffeine. The underlying mechanism is believed to involve changes in hormone levels.[1] Reducing salt, caffeine, and stress along with increasing exercise is typically all that is recommended in those with mild symptoms.[1] Calcium and vitamin D supplementation may be useful in some.[2] Anti-inflammatory drugs such as naproxen may help with physical symptoms.[1] In those with more significant symptoms birth control pills or the diuretic spironolactone may be useful.[2][1] Up to 80% women report having some symptoms prior to menstruation. These symptoms qualify as PMS in 20 to 30% of pre-menopausal women.[2] Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a more severe form of PMS that has greater psychological symptoms.[2][1] PMDD affects three to eight percent of pre-menopausal women.[2] Antidepressant medication of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors class may be used in addition to usual measures for in PMDD.[1]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premenstrual_syndrome
Natural remedies for:
Toxicodendron radicans
Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the allergic reaction caused by poison ivy. In extreme cases, a reaction can progress to anaphylaxis. Around 15% to 25% of people have no allergic reaction to urushiol, but most people will have a greater reaction with repeated or more concentrated exposure.[16][17] Over 350,000 people are affected by poison ivy annually in the United States.[18] The pentadecylcatechols of the oleoresin within the sap of poison ivy and related plants causes the allergic reaction; the plants produce a mixture of pentadecylcatechols, which collectively is called urushiol. After injury, the sap leaks to the surface of the plant where the urushiol becomes a blackish lacquer after contact with oxygen.[2][19] Urushiol binds to the skin on contact, where it causes severe itching that develops into reddish inflammation or non-coloured bumps, and then blistering. These lesions may be treated with Calamine lotion, Burow's solution compresses, dedicated commercial poison ivy itch creams, or baths to relieve discomfort,[20] though recent studies have shown some traditional medicines to be ineffective.[21][22] Over-the-counter products to ease itching—or simply oatmeal baths and baking soda—are now recommended by dermatologists for the treatment of poison ivy.[23] A plant-based remedy cited to counter urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is jewelweed, and a jewelweed mash made from the living plant was effective in reducing poison ivy dermatitis, supporting ethnobotanical use, while jewelweed extracts had no positive effect in clinical studies.[24][25][26][27] Others argue that prevention of lesions is easy if one practices effective washing, using plain soap, scrubbing with a washcloth, and rinsing three times within two to eight hours of exposure.[28] The oozing fluids released by scratching blisters do not spread the poison. The fluid in the blisters is produced by the body and it is not urushiol itself.[29] The appearance of a spreading rash indicates that some areas received more of the poison and reacted sooner than other areas or that contamination is still occurring from contact with objects to which the original poison was spread. Those affected can unknowingly spread the urushiol inside the house, on phones, door knobs, couches, counters, desks, and so on, thus in fact repeatedly coming into contact with poison ivy and extending the length of time of the rash. If this has happened, wipe down the surfaces with bleach or a commercial urushiol removal agent. The blisters and oozing result from blood vessels that develop gaps and leak fluid through the skin; if the skin is cooled, the vessels constrict and leak less.[30] If poison ivy is burned and the smoke then inhaled, this rash will appear on the lining of the lungs, causing extreme pain and possibly fatal respiratory difficulty.[31] If poison ivy is eaten, the mucus lining of the mouth and digestive tract can be damaged.[32] A poison ivy rash usually develops within a week of exposure and can last anywhere from one to four weeks, depending on severity and treatment. In rare cases, poison ivy reactions may require hospitalization.[33] Urushiol oil can remain active for several years, so handling dead leaves or vines can cause a reaction. In addition, oil transferred from the plant to other objects (such as pet fur) can cause the rash if it comes into contact with the skin.[34][35] Clothing, tools, and other objects that have been exposed to the oil should be washed to prevent further transmission. People who are sensitive to poison ivy can also experience a similar rash from mangoes. Mangoes are in the same family (Anacardiaceae) as poison ivy; the sap of the mango tree and skin of mangoes has a chemical compound similar to urushiol.[36] A related allergenic compound is present in the raw shells of cashews.[37] Similar reactions have been reported occasionally from contact with the related Fragrant Sumac (Rhus aromatica) and Japanese lacquer tree. These other plants are also in the Anacardiaceae family.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toxicodendron_radicans
Natural remedies for:
Psoriasis
Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease which is characterized by patches of abnormal skin.[6] These skin patches are typically red, itchy, and scaly. They may vary in severity from small and localized to complete body coverage.[3] Injury to the skin can trigger psoriatic skin changes at that spot, which is known as the Koebner phenomenon.[9] There are five main types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular, and erythrodermic.[6] Plaque psoriasis, also known as psoriasis vulgaris, makes up about 90% of cases. It typically presents with red patches with white scales on top. Areas of the body most commonly affected are the back of the forearms, shins, around the navel, and the scalp.[4] Guttate psoriasis has drop-shaped lesions.[6] Pustular psoriasis presents with small non-infectious pus-filled blisters.[10] Inverse psoriasis forms red patches in skin folds.[6] Erythrodermic psoriasis occurs when the rash becomes very widespread, and can develop from any of the other types. Fingernails and toenails are affected in most people at some point in time. This may include pits in the nails or changes in nail color.[4] Psoriasis is generally thought to be a genetic disease which is triggered by environmental factors.[3] In twin studies, identical twins are three times more likely to both be affected compared to non-identical twins; this suggests that genetic factors predispose to psoriasis. Symptoms often worsen during winter and with certain medications such as beta blockers or NSAIDs.[4] Infections and psychological stress may also play a role.[6][3] Psoriasis is not contagious. The underlying mechanism involves the immune system reacting to skin cells. Diagnosis is typically based on the signs and symptoms.[4] There is no cure for psoriasis. However, various treatments can help control the symptoms.[4] These treatments may include steroid creams, vitamin D3 cream, ultraviolet light, and immune system suppressing medications such as methotrexate.[6] About 75% of cases can be managed with creams alone.[4] The disease affects 2–4% of the population.[8] Men and women are affected with equal frequency.[6] The disease may begin at any age but usually starts in adulthood.[5] Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of psoriatic arthritis, lymphomas, cardiovascular disease, Crohn's disease, and depression.[4] Psoriatic arthritis affects up to 30% of individuals with psoriasis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psoriasis
Natural remedies for:
Skin Care
Skin care is the range of practices that support skin integrity, enhance its appearance and relieve skin conditions. They can include nutrition, avoidance of excessive sun exposure and appropriate use of emollients. Practices that enhance appearance include the use of cosmetics, botulinum, exfoliation, fillers, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, peels, retinol therapy.[1] Skin care is a routine daily procedure in many settings, such as skin that is either too dry or too moist, and prevention of dermatitis and prevention of skin injuries.[2]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skin_care
Natural remedies for:
Sore Throat
Sore throat, also known as throat pain, is pain or irritation of the throat. It is usually caused by pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat) or tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils). It can also result from trauma. About 7.5% of people have a sore throat in any three-month period.[1]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sore_throat
Natural remedies for:
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD), is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine, or occasionally the lower esophagus.[1][7] An ulcer in the stomach is known as a gastric ulcer while that in the first part of the intestines is known as a duodenal ulcer. The most common symptoms of a duodenal ulcer are waking at night with upper abdominal pain or upper abdominal pain that improves with eating.[1] With a gastric ulcer the pain may worsen with eating.[8] The pain is often described as a burning or dull ache. Other symptoms include belching, vomiting, weight loss, or poor appetite. About a third of older people have no symptoms.[1] Complications may include bleeding, perforation, and blockage of the stomach. Bleeding occurs in as many as 15% of people.[2] Common causes include the bacteria Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).[1] Other less common causes include tobacco smoking, stress due to serious illness, Behcet disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, Crohn disease and liver cirrhosis, among others.[1][3] Older people are more sensitive to the ulcer-causing effects of NSAIDs. The diagnosis is typically suspected due to the presenting symptoms with confirmation by either endoscopy or barium swallow. H. pylori can be diagnosed by testing the blood for antibodies, a urea breath test, testing the stool for signs of the bacteria, or a biopsy of the stomach. Other conditions that produce similar symptoms include stomach cancer, coronary heart disease, and inflammation of the stomach lining or gallbladder inflammation.[1] Diet does not play an important role in either causing or preventing ulcers.[9] Treatment includes stopping smoking, stopping NSAIDs, stopping alcohol, and medications to decrease stomach acid. The medication used to decrease acid is usually either a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or an H2 blocker with four weeks of treatment initially recommended.[1] Ulcers due to H. pylori are treated with a combination of medications such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and a PPI. Antibiotic resistance is increasing and thus treatment may not always be effective.[4] Bleeding ulcers may be treated by endoscopy, with open surgery typically only used in cases in which it is not successful.[2] Peptic ulcers are present in around 4% of the population.[1] They newly began in around 87.4 million persons worldwide in 2015.[5] About 10% of people develop a peptic ulcer at some point in their life.[10] They resulted in 267,500 deaths in 2015 down from 327,000 deaths in 1990.[6][11] The first description of a perforated peptic ulcer was in 1670 in Princess Henrietta of England.[2] H. pylori was first identified as causing peptic ulcers by Barry Marshall and Robin Warren in the late 20th century,[4] a discovery for which they received the Nobel Prize in 2005
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD), is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine, or occasionally the lower esophagus.[1][7] An ulcer in the stomach is known as a gastric ulcer while that in the first part of the intestines is known as a duodenal ulcer. The most common symptoms of a duodenal ulcer are waking at night with upper abdominal pain or upper abdominal pain that improves with eating.[1] With a gastric ulcer the pain may worsen with eating.[8] The pain is often described as a burning or dull ache. Other symptoms include belching, vomiting, weight loss, or poor appetite. About a third of older people have no symptoms.[1] Complications may include bleeding, perforation, and blockage of the stomach. Bleeding occurs in as many as 15% of people.[2] Common causes include the bacteria Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).[1] Other less common causes include tobacco smoking, stress due to serious illness, Behcet disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, Crohn disease and liver cirrhosis, among others.[1][3] Older people are more sensitive to the ulcer-causing effects of NSAIDs. The diagnosis is typically suspected due to the presenting symptoms with confirmation by either endoscopy or barium swallow. H. pylori can be diagnosed by testing the blood for antibodies, a urea breath test, testing the stool for signs of the bacteria, or a biopsy of the stomach. Other conditions that produce similar symptoms include stomach cancer, coronary heart disease, and inflammation of the stomach lining or gallbladder inflammation.[1] Diet does not play an important role in either causing or preventing ulcers.[9] Treatment includes stopping smoking, stopping NSAIDs, stopping alcohol, and medications to decrease stomach acid. The medication used to decrease acid is usually either a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or an H2 blocker with four weeks of treatment initially recommended.[1] Ulcers due to H. pylori are treated with a combination of medications such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and a PPI. Antibiotic resistance is increasing and thus treatment may not always be effective.[4] Bleeding ulcers may be treated by endoscopy, with open surgery typically only used in cases in which it is not successful.[2] Peptic ulcers are present in around 4% of the population.[1] They newly began in around 87.4 million persons worldwide in 2015.[5] About 10% of people develop a peptic ulcer at some point in their life.[10] They resulted in 267,500 deaths in 2015 down from 327,000 deaths in 1990.[6][11] The first description of a perforated peptic ulcer was in 1670 in Princess Henrietta of England.[2] H. pylori was first identified as causing peptic ulcers by Barry Marshall and Robin Warren in the late 20th century,[4] a discovery for which they received the Nobel Prize in 2005
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptic_ulcer_disease
Natural remedies for:
Urinary tract infection
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.[1] When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection (cystitis) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as kidney infection (pyelonephritis).[9] Symptoms from a lower urinary tract include pain with urination, frequent urination, and feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty bladder.[1] Symptoms of a kidney infection include fever and flank pain usually in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI.[9] Rarely the urine may appear bloody.[6] In the very old and the very young, symptoms may be vague or non-specific.[1][10] The most common cause of infection is Escherichia coli, though other bacteria or fungi may rarely be the cause. Risk factors include female anatomy, sexual intercourse, diabetes, obesity, and family history.[2] Although sexual intercourse is a risk factor, UTIs are not classified as sexually transmitted infections (STIs).[11] Kidney infection, if it occurs, usually follows a bladder infection but may also result from a blood-borne infection.[12] Diagnosis in young healthy women can be based on symptoms alone.[4] In those with vague symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult because bacteria may be present without there being an infection.[13] In complicated cases or if treatment fails, a urine culture may be useful.[3] In uncomplicated cases, UTIs are treated with a short course of antibiotics such as nitrofurantoin or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.[6] Resistance to many of the antibiotics used to treat this condition is increasing.[1] In complicated cases, a longer course or intravenous antibiotics may be needed.[6] If symptoms do not improve in two or three days, further diagnostic testing may be needed.[3] Phenazopyridine may help with symptoms.[1] In those who have bacteria or white blood cells in their urine but have no symptoms, antibiotics are generally not needed,[14] although during pregnancy is an exception.[15] In those with frequent infections, a short course of antibiotics may be taken as soon as symptoms begin or long-term antibiotics may be used as a preventative measure.[16] About 150 million people developed a urinary tract infection each year.[2] They are more common in women than men.[6] In women, they are the most common form of bacterial infection.[17] Up to 10% of women have a urinary tract infection in a given year and half of women having at least one infection at some point in their lives.[6][4] They occur most frequently between the ages of 16 and 35 years. Recurrences are common.[6] Urinary tract infections have been described since ancient times with the first documented description in the Ebers Papyrus dated to c. 1550 BC
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urinary_tract_infection
Natural remedies for:
Wasp Sting, Bee Sting, Insect Bite
A bee sting is a sting from a bee (honey bee, bumblebee, sweat bee, etc.). The stings of most of these species can be quite painful, and are therefore keenly avoided by many people. Bee stings differ from insect bites, and the venom or toxin of stinging insects is quite different. Therefore, the body's reaction to a bee sting may differ significantly from one species to another. In particular, bee stings are acidic, whereas wasp stings are alkali. So the body's reaction to a bee sting may be very different than to that of a wasp sting.[1] The most aggressive stinging insects are vespid wasps (including bald-faced hornets and other yellow jackets) and hornets (especially the Asian giant hornet).[2] All of these insects aggressively defend their nests. Although for most people a bee sting is painful but otherwise relatively harmless, in people with insect sting allergy, stings may trigger a dangerous anaphylactic reaction that is potentially deadly. Honey bee stings release pheromones that prompt other nearby bees to attack.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bee_sting
Natural remedies for:
Edema
Edema, also spelled œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain. Clinically, edema manifests as swelling. The amount of interstitial fluid is determined by the balance of fluid homeostasis; and the increased secretion of fluid into the interstitium, or the impaired removal of the fluid, can cause the condition. The word is from Greek οἴδημα oídēma meaning "swelling".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edema
Natural remedies for:
Candidiasis
Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast).[2] When it affects the mouth, it is commonly called thrush.[2] Signs and symptoms include white patches on the tongue or other areas of the mouth and throat.[3] Other symptoms may include soreness and problems swallowing.[3] When it affects the vagina, it is commonly called a yeast infection.[2] Signs and symptoms include genital itching, burning, and sometimes a white "cottage cheese-like" discharge from the vagina.[8] Less commonly the penis may be affected, resulting in itchiness.[3] Very rarely, the infection may becoming invasive, spreading to other parts of the body.[9] This may result in fevers along with other symptoms depending on the parts involved.[9] More than 20 types of Candida can cause infection with Candida albicans being the most common.[2] Infections of the mouth are most common among children less than one month old, the elderly, and those with weak immune systems. Conditions that result in a weak immune system include HIV/AIDS, the medications used after organ transplantation, diabetes, and the use of corticosteroids. Other risks include dentures and following antibiotic therapy.[4] Vaginal infections occur more commonly during pregnancy, in those with weak immune systems, and following antibiotic use.[10] Risk factors for invasive candidiasis include being in an intensive care unit, following surgery, low birth weight infants, and those with weak immune systems.[11] Efforts to prevent infections of the mouth include the use of chlorhexidine mouth wash in those with poor immune function and washing out the mouth following the use of inhaled steroids.[5] Little evidence supports probiotics for either prevention or treatment even among those with frequent vaginal infections.[12][13] For infections of the mouth, treatment with topical clotrimazole or nystatin is usually effective. By mouth or intravenous fluconazole, itraconazole, or amphotericin B may be used if these do not work.[5] A number of topical antifungal medications may be used for vaginal infections including clotrimazole.[14] In those with widespread disease, an echinocandin such as caspofungin or micafungin is used.[15] A number of weeks of intravenous amphotericin B may be used as an alternative.[15] In certain groups at very high risk, antifungal medications may be used preventatively.[11][15] Infections of the mouth occur in about 6% of babies less than a month old. About 20% of those receiving chemotherapy for cancer and 20% of those with AIDS also develop the disease.[6] About three-quarters of women have at least one yeast infection at some time during their lives.[7] Widespread disease is rare except in those who have risk factors.[16]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candidiasis
Activated Charcoal
Activated charcoal, also known as activated carbon, is a medication used to treat poisonings that occurred by mouth.[1] To be effective it must be used within a short time of the poisoning occurring, typically an hour.[2][1] It does not work for poisonings by cyanide, corrosive agents, iron, lithium, alcohols, or malathion.[2] It may be taken by mouth or given by a nasogastric tube.[3] Other uses include inside hemoperfusion machines.[1] Common side effects include vomiting, black stools, diarrhea, and constipation.[1] The more serious side effect, pneumonitis, may result if aspirated into the lungs.[2][1] Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding is safe.[3] Activated charcoal works by adsorbing the toxin.[1] While charcoal has been used since ancient times for poisonings, activated charcoal has been used since the 1900s.[4][5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] The wholesale costs in the developing world is between 0.46 and 0.86 USD per dose.[7] In the United States a course of treatment costs less than 25 USD.[3]
Prunus dulcis
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent and North Africa. "Almond" is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by corrugations on the shell (endocarp) surrounding the seed. The fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed, which is not a true nut, inside. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are sold shelled or unshelled. Blanched almonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seedcoat, which is then removed to reveal the white embryo.
Aloe Vera
Aloe vera (/ˈæloʊiː/ or /ˈæloʊ/) is a plant species of the genus Aloe. It grows wild in tropical climates around the world and is cultivated for agricultural and medicinal uses. Aloe is also used for decorative purposes and grows successfully indoors as a potted plant.[3] It is found in many consumer products including beverages, skin lotion, cosmetics, or ointments for minor burns and sunburns.
Apple Cider Vinegar
Apple cider vinegar, otherwise known as cider vinegar or ACV, is a type of vinegar made from cider or apple must and has a pale to medium amber color. Unpasteurized or organic ACV contains mother of vinegar, which has a cobweb-like appearance and can make the vinegar look slightly congealed. ACV is used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys. It is made by crushing apples and squeezing out the liquid. Bacteria and yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, and the sugars are turned into alcohol. In a second fermentation process, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (acetobacter). Acetic acid and malic acid give vinegar its sour taste.
Withania somnifera
Withania somnifera, known commonly as ashwagandha,[2] Indian ginseng,[3]padalsingh (rajasthan), poison gooseberry,[3] or winter cherry,[2] is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family. Several other species in the genus Withania are morphologically similar.[4] It is used as a herb in Ayurvedic medicine.
Asparagus officinalis
Asparagus, or garden asparagus, scientific name Asparagus officinalis, is a spring vegetable, a flowering perennial plant species in the genus Asparagus. It was once classified in the lily family, like the related Allium species, onions and garlic, but the Liliaceae have been split and the onion-like plants are now in the family Amaryllidaceae and asparagus in the Asparagaceae. Asparagus officinalis is native to most of Europe, northern Africa and western Asia,[2][3][4] and is widely cultivated as a vegetable crop.
Azadirachta indica
Azadirachta indica (commonly known as neem, nimtree and Indian lilac[2]) is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae. It is one of two species in the genus Azadirachta, and is native to the Indian subcontinent, i.e. India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. It typically is grown in tropical and semi-tropical regions. Neem trees now also grow in islands located in the southern part of Iran. Its fruits and seeds are the source of neem oil.
Sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate) is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of sodium ions and bicarbonate ions. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs. It is among the food additives encoded by the European Union, identified as E 500.
Laurus
Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaves of several plants used in cooking. These include: Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance. The leaves should be removed from the cooked food before eating (see Safety section below). The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean cuisine and beans in Brazilian cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1] California bay leaf – the leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica, Lauraceae), also known as California laurel, Oregon myrtle, and pepperwood, is similar to the Mediterranean bay laurel, but has a stronger flavor. Indian bay leaf or malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala, Lauraceae) is somewhat similar in appearance to the leaves of bay laurel, but is culinarily quite different, having a fragrance and taste similar to cinnamon (cassia) bark, but milder. Indonesian bay leaf or Indonesian laurel (salam leaf, Syzygium polyanthum, Myrtaceae) is not commonly found outside of Indonesia; this herb is applied to meat and, less often vegetables.[2] West Indian bay leaf, the leaf of the West Indian bay tree (Pimenta racemosa, Myrtaceae), used culinarily and to produce the cologne called bay rum. Mexican bay leaf (Litsea glaucescens, Lauraceae).
Beetroot Juice
The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant,[1] usually known in North America as the beet, also table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet. It is one of several of the cultivated varieties of Beta vulgaris grown for their edible taproots and their leaves (called beet greens). These varieties have been classified as B. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Conditiva Group.[2] Other than as a food, beets have use as a food colouring and as a medicinal plant. Many beet products are made from other Beta vulgaris varieties, particularly sugar beet.
Vaccinium Ericaceae
Bilberries are any of several primarily Eurasian species of low-growing shrubs in the genus Vaccinium (family Ericaceae), bearing edible, nearly black berries. The species most often referred to is Vaccinium myrtillus L., but there are several other closely related species.
Actaea racemosa
Actaea racemosa (black cohosh, black bugbane, black snakeroot, fairy candle; syn. Cimicifuga racemosa) is a species of flowering plant of the family Ranunculaceae. It is native to eastern North America from the extreme south of Ontario to central Georgia, and west to Missouri and Arkansas. It grows in a variety of woodland habitats, and is often found in small woodland openings. The roots and rhizomes have long been used medicinally by Native Americans. Extracts from these plant materials are thought to possess analgesic, sedative, and anti-inflammatory properties. Black cohosh extracts are being studied as treatments for symptoms associated with menopause.
Arctium
Arctium is a genus of biennial plants commonly known as Burdock, family Asteraceae.[3] Native to the Old World, several species have been widely introduced worldwide.
Ruscus aculeatus
Ruscus aculeatus, known as butcher's-broom,[1] is a low evergreen Eurasian shrub, with flat shoots known as cladodes that give the appearance of stiff, spine-tipped leaves. Small greenish flowers appear in spring, and are borne singly in the centre of the cladodes. The female flowers are followed by a red berry, and the seeds are bird-distributed, but the plant also spreads vegetatively by means of rhizomes. Ruscus aculeatus occurs in woodlands and hedgerows, where it is tolerant of deep shade, and also on coastal cliffs. It is also widely planted in gardens, and has spread as a garden escapee in many areas outside its native range.
Capsaicin
Capsaicin (/kæpˈseɪ.ᵻsɪn/ (INN); 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is an active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. It is an irritant for mammals, including humans, and produces a sensation of burning in any tissue with which it comes into contact. Capsaicin and several related compounds are called capsaicinoids and are produced as secondary metabolites by chili peppers, probably as deterrents against certain mammals and fungi.[3] Pure capsaicin is a non-volatile, hydrophobic, colorless, highly pungent,[2] crystalline to waxy compound.
Caraway
Caraway, also known as meridian fennel,[1] and Persian cumin,[1] (Carum carvi) is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae,[2] native to western Asia, Europe, and North Africa.[3][3][4][5][6] The plant is similar in appearance to other members of the carrot family, with finely divided, feathery leaves with thread-like divisions, growing on 20–30 cm (7.9–11.8 in) stems. The main flower stem is 40–60 cm (16–24 in) tall, with small white or pink flowers in umbels. Caraway fruits (erroneously called seeds) are crescent-shaped achenes, around 2 mm (0.08 in) long, with five pale ridges.
Cardamom
Cardamom (/ˈkɑːrdəməm/), sometimes Cardamon or Cardamum,[1] is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae. Both genera are native to India (the largest producer until the late 20th century), Bhutan, Indonesia and Nepal. They are recognized by their small seed pods: triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds; Elettaria pods are light green and smaller, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown. The first references to trade in cardamom from Sri Lanka, where it is grown on small scale in montane forests in the central mountain ranges, are from the 12th century CE.[2] Nowadays, it is also cultivated in some other countries, such as Guatemala, Malaysia and Tanzania.[3] The German coffee planter Oscar Majus Kloeffer introduced Indian cardamom (kerala) to cultivation in Guatemala before World War I; by 2000 that country had become the biggest producer and exporter of cardamom in the world, followed by India.[4] Cardamom is the world's third-most expensive spice, surpassed in price per weight only by vanilla and saffron.
Castor Oil
Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis).[1] The common name "castor oil", from which the plant gets its name, probably comes from its use as a replacement for castoreum, a perfume base made from the dried perineal glands of the beaver (castor in Latin).[2] Castor oil is a colorless to very pale yellow liquid with a distinct taste and odor once first ingested. Its boiling point is 313 °C (595 °F) and its density is 961 kg/m3.[3] It is a triglyceride in which approximately 90 percent of fatty acid chains are ricinoleates. Oleate and linoleates are the other significant components. Castor oil and its derivatives are used in the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, hydraulic and brake fluids, paints, dyes, coatings, inks, cold resistant plastics, waxes and polishes, nylon, pharmaceuticals and perfumes.[4]
Rubiaceae
The Rubiaceae are a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the coffee, madder, or bedstraw family. It consists of terrestrial trees, shrubs, lianas, or herbs that are recognizable by simple, opposite leaves with interpetiolar stipules. The family contains about 13,500 species in 611 genera, which makes it the fourth-largest angiosperm family. Rubiaceae has a cosmopolitan distribution; however, the largest species diversity is concentrated in the (sub)tropics.[1] Economic importance includes Coffea, the source of coffee, Cinchona, the source of the antimalarial alkaloid quinine, some dye plants (e.g. Rubia), and ornamental cultivars (e.g. Gardenia, Ixora, Pentas).
Apium graveolens
In temperate countries, celery is also grown for its seeds. Actually very small fruit, these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. They contain an organic compound called apiole. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice, either as whole seeds or ground.
Chamomile
Chamomile (American English) or camomile (British English; see spelling differences) (/ˈkæməˌmaɪl, -ˌmiːl/ KAM-ə-myl or KAM-ə-meel[1][2]) is the common name for several daisy-like plants of the family Asteraceae that are commonly used to make herb infusions to serve various medicinal purposes. Popular uses of chamomile preparations include treating hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, gastrointestinal disorders, and hemorrhoids.[3] Chamomile tea is also used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, chickenpox, and psoriasis.
Vitex agnus-castus
Vitex agnus-castus, also called vitex, chaste tree, chasteberry, Abraham's balm,[1] lilac chastetree,[2] or monk's pepper, is a native of the Mediterranean region. It is one of the few temperate-zone species of Vitex, which is on the whole a genus of tropical and sub-tropical flowering plants.[3] Theophrastus mentioned the shrub several times, as agnos (άγνος) in Enquiry into Plants.[4] It has been long believed to be an anaphrodisiac but its effectiveness remains controversial. This is a cross-pollinating plant. However self-pollination may also occur now and then.
Cinnamomum verum
Cinnamon (/ˈsɪnəmən/ SIN-ə-mən) is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used in both sweet and savoury foods. The term "cinnamon" also refers to its mid-brown colour. Cinnamomum verum is sometimes considered to be "true cinnamon", but most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from related species, also referred to as "cassia".[1][2] Cinnamon is the name for perhaps a dozen species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae.[3] Only a few Cinnamomum species are grown commercially for spice.
Oil of Clove
Oil of clove, also known as clove oil, is an essential oil extracted from the clove plant, Syzygium aromaticum. It has the CAS number 8000-34-8. Clove is often found in the aromatherapy section of health food stores, and is used in the flavoring of some medicines. Madagascar and Indonesia are the main producers of clove oil.[1] Clove oil has been promoted as having a wide range of health effects, but there is insufficient medical evidence to support general claims for its use as a therapeutic.[2]
copra oil
Coconut oil, or copra oil, is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). It has various applications. Because of its high saturated fat content, it is slow to oxidize and, thus, resistant to rancidification, lasting up to six months at 24 °C (75 °F) without spoiling.[1] Due to its high levels of saturated fat, the World Health Organization, the United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Food and Drug Administration, American Heart Association, International College of Nutrition, American Dietetic Association, British National Health Service, British Nutrition Foundation, and Dietitians of Canada advise that coconut oil consumption should be limited or avoided.
Coffee
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant. The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa (specifically having its origin in Ethiopia and Sudan) and Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius and Réunion in the Indian Ocean.[2] The plant was exported from Africa to countries around the world and coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, India, and Africa. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded arabica, and the less sophisticated but stronger and more hardy robusta. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. Dried coffee seeds (referred to as beans) are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. Roasted beans are ground and brewed with near boiling water to produce coffee as a beverage. Coffee is slightly acidic and can have a stimulating effect on humans because of its caffeine content. Coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the world.[3] It can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, cafe latte, etc.). It is usually served hot, although iced coffee is also served. Clinical studies indicate that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults, with continuing research on whether long-term consumption inhibits cognitive decline during aging or lowers the risk of some forms of cancer.[4][5] The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century in the Sufi shrines of Yemen.[6] It was here in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a similar way to how it is now prepared. Coffee seeds were first exported from East Africa to Yemen, as the coffea arabica plant is thought to have been indigenous to the former.[7] Yemeni traders took coffee back to their homeland and began to cultivate the seed. By the 16th century, it had reached Persia, Turkey, and North Africa. From there, it spread to Europe and the rest of the world. Coffee is a major export commodity: it is the top agricultural export for numerous countries and is among the world's largest legal agricultural exports.[3][8] It is one of the most valuable commodities exported by developing countries. Green (unroasted) coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.[9] Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and the way developed countries trade with developing nations and the impact of its cultivation on the environment, in regards to clearing of land for coffee-growing and water use. Consequently, the markets for fair trade coffee and organic coffee are expanding.
ubiquinone, ubidecarenone
Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10 /ˌkoʊ ˌkjuː ˈtɛn/, CoQ, or Q10 is a coenzyme that is ubiquitous in animals and most bacteria (hence the name ubiquinone). It is a 1,4-benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group and 10 refers to the number of isoprenyl chemical subunits in its tail. This fat-soluble substance, which resembles a vitamin, is present in all respiring eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, which generates energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human body's energy is generated this way.[1][2] Therefore, those organs with the highest energy requirements—such as the heart, liver, and kidney—have the highest CoQ10 concentrations.[3][4][5] There are three redox states of CoQ10: fully oxidized (ubiquinone), semiquinone (ubisemiquinone), and fully reduced (ubiquinol). The capacity of this molecule to act as a two-electron carrier (moving between the quinone and quinol form) and a one-electron carrier (moving between the semiquinone and one of these other forms) is central to its role in the electron transport chain due to the iron–sulfur clusters that can only accept one electron at a time, and as a free radical-scavenging antioxidant.
Taraxacum
Taraxacum (/təˈræksəkᵿm/) is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae which consists of species commonly known as dandelion. They are native to Eurasia and North America, but the two commonplace species worldwide, T. officinale and T. erythrospermum, were imports from Europe that now propagate as wildflowers.[2] Both species are edible in their entirety.[3] The common name dandelion (/ˈdændᵻlaɪ.ən/ DAN-di-ly-ən, from French dent-de-lion, meaning "lion's tooth") is given to members of the genus. Like other members of the Asteraceae family, they have very small flowers collected together into a composite flower head. Each single flower in a head is called a floret. Many Taraxacum species produce seeds asexually by apomixis, where the seeds are produced without pollination, resulting in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent plant.[
Harpagophytum procumbens
Harpagophytum procumbens, also called grapple plant, wood spider and most commonly devil's claw, is a genus of plants in the sesame family, native to southern Africa. Plants of the genus owe their common name "devil's claw" to the peculiar appearance of their hooked fruit. Several species of North American plants in genus Proboscidea and certain species of Pisonia are however also known by this name. Devil's claw's tuberous roots are used in folk medicine to reduce pain.
Dehydroepiandrosterone
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.[2][5] It is one of the most abundant circulating steroids in humans,[6] in whom it is produced in the adrenal glands,[7] the gonads, and the brain,[8] where it functions as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the androgen and estrogen sex steroids.[5][9] However, DHEA also has a variety of potential biological effects in its own right, binding to an array of nuclear and cell surface receptors,[10] and acting as a neurosteroid and neurotrophin.[11]
Angelica sinensis
Angelica sinensis, commonly known as dong quai or "female ginseng" is a herb from the family Apiaceae, indigenous to China. Angelica sinensis grows in cool high altitude mountains in China, Japan, and Korea. The yellowish brown root of the plant is harvested in fall and is a well-known Chinese medicine used over thousands of years
Sambuccus
Sambucus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Adoxaceae. The various species are commonly called elder or elderberry. The genus was formerly placed in the honeysuckle family, Caprifoliaceae, but was reclassified due to genetic and morphological comparisons to Adoxa. In Sambucus, there are between 5 and 30 species of deciduous shrubs, small trees and herbaceous perennial plants. The genus occurs in temperate to subtropical regions of the world. More widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, its Southern Hemisphere occurrence is restricted to parts of Australasia and South America. Many species are widely cultivated for their ornamental leaves, flowers and fruit.[2] The leaves are pinnate with 5–9 leaflets (rarely 3 or 11). Each leaf is 5–30 cm (2.0–11.8 in) long, and the leaflets have serrated margins. They bear large clusters of small white or cream-colored flowers in late spring; these are followed by clusters of small black, blue-black, or red berries (rarely yellow or white).
Magnesium sulfate
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt (chemical compound) containing magnesium, sulfur and oxygen, with the formula MgSO4. It is often encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), commonly called Epsom salt. The monohydrate, MgSO4·H2O is found as the mineral kieserite. The overall global annual usage in the mid-1970s of the monohydrate was 2.3 million tons, of which the majority was used in agriculture.[1] Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is used as a drying agent. The anhydrous form is hygroscopic (readily absorbs water from the air) and is therefore difficult to weigh accurately; the hydrate is often preferred when preparing solutions (for example, in medical preparations). Epsom salt has been traditionally used as a component of bath salts. Epsom salt can also be used as a beauty product. Athletes use it to soothe sore muscles, while gardeners use it to improve crops. It has a variety of other uses: for example, Epsom salt is also effective in the removal of splinters.[2] It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[3]
Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus /ˌjuːkəˈlɪptəs/[2] L'Heritier 1789[3] is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Members of the genus dominate the tree flora of Australia, and include Eucalyptus regnans, the tallest known flowering plant on Earth.[4] There are more than 700 species of eucalyptus and most are native to Australia; a very small number are found in adjacent areas of New Guinea and Indonesia. One species, Eucalyptus deglupta, ranges as far north as the Philippines. Of the 15 species found outside Australia, just nine are exclusively non-Australian. Species of eucalyptus are cultivated widely in the tropical and temperate world, including the Americas, Europe, Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East, China, and the Indian subcontinent. However, the range over which many eucalypts can be planted in the temperate zone is constrained by their limited cold tolerance.[5] Australia is covered by 92,000,000 hectares (227,336,951 acres) of eucalypt forest, comprising three quarters of the area covered by native forest.[6] Eucalyptus is one of three similar genera that are commonly referred to as "eucalypts", the others being Corymbia and Angophora. Many species, though by no means all, are known as gum trees because they exude copious kino from any break in the bark (e.g., scribbly gum). The generic name is derived from the Greek words ευ (eu) "well" and καλύπτω (kalýpto) "to cover", referring to the operculum on the calyx that initially conceals the flower.[7] Some eucalyptus species have attracted attention from horticulturists, global development researchers, and environmentalists because of desirable traits such as being fast-growing sources of wood, producing oil that can be used for cleaning and as a natural insecticide, or an ability to be used to drain swamps and thereby reduce the risk of malaria. Eucalyptus oil finds many uses like in fuels, fragrances, insect repellance and antimicrobial activity. Eucalyptus trees show allelopathic effects; they release compounds which inhibit other plant species from growing nearby. Outside their natural ranges, eucalypts are both lauded for their beneficial economic impact on poor populations[8][9]:22 and criticised for being "water-guzzling" aliens,[10] leading to controversy over their total impact.[11] On warm days, eucalyptus forests are sometimes shrouded in a smog-like mist of vaporised volatile organic compounds (terpenoids); the Australian Blue Mountains take their name from the haze.[12]
(Foeniculum vulgare)
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a flowering plant species in the carrot family.[2] It is a hardy, perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become widely naturalized in many parts of the world, especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses and, along with the similar-tasting anise, is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including in its native range the mouse moth and the Old-World swallowtail. Where it has been introduced in north America it may be used by the anise swallowtail.
Trigonella foenum-graecum
Fenugreek (/ˈfɛnjᵿɡriːk/; Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae, with leaves consisting of three small obovate to oblong leaflets. It is cultivated worldwide as a semiarid crop. Its seeds and its leaves are common ingredients in dishes from South Asia.
Tanacetum parthenium
Tanacetum parthenium, feverfew,[1] is a flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae. It is a traditional medicinal herb which is commonly used to prevent migraine headaches, and is also occasionally grown for ornament. It is also commonly seen in the literature by its synonyms, Chrysanthemum parthenium and Pyrethrum parthenium. It is also sometimes referred to as bachelor's buttons or featherfew
Flaxseeds
Flaxseeds occur in two basic varieties: brown and yellow or golden (also known as golden linseeds).[19] Most types have similar nutritional characteristics and equal numbers of short-chain omega-3 fatty acids. The exception is a type of yellow flax called solin (trade name Linola), which has a completely different oil profile and is very low in omega-3 FAs. Flaxseeds produce a vegetable oil known as flaxseed oil or linseed oil, which is one of the oldest commercial oils. It is an edible oil obtained by expeller pressing, sometimes followed by solvent extraction. Solvent-processed flaxseed oil has been used for many centuries as a drying oil in painting and varnishing.[20] Although brown flax may be consumed as readily as yellow, and has been for thousands of years, its better-known uses are in paints, for fiber, and for cattle feed.
Frankincense
Frankincense (also known as olibanum, Hebrew: לבונה [levona], Arabic: al-lubān) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera. The English word is derived from Old French "franc encens" (i.e., high quality incense).[1] There are four main species of Boswellia that produce true frankincense. Resin from each of the four is available in various grades. The grades depend on the time of harvesting; the resin is hand-sorted for quality.
Allium sativum
Garlic (scientific name Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive,[2] and Chinese onion.[3] With a history of several thousand years of human consumption and use, garlic is native to Central Asia and northeastern Iran, and has long been a common seasoning worldwide.[1][2] It was known to Ancient Egyptians, and has been used both as a food flavoring and as a traditional medicine.[4][5]
Zingiber officinale
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.[2] It is a herbaceous perennial which grows annual stems about a meter tall bearing narrow green leaves and yellow flowers. Ginger is in the family Zingiberaceae, to which also belong turmeric (Curcuma longa), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), and galangal. Ginger originated in the tropical rainforest in Southern Asia. Although ginger no longer grows wild, it is thought to have originated on the Indian subcontinent because the ginger plants grown in India show the largest amount of genetic variation. Ginger was exported to Europe via India in the first century AD as a result of the lucrative spice trade and was used extensively by the Romans. The distantly related dicots in the genus Asarum are commonly called wild ginger because of their similar taste.
Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko[4] (both pronounced /ˈɡɪŋkoʊ/), also known as the ginkgo tree or the maidenhair tree,[5] is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct. It is found in fossils dating back 270 million years. Native to China,[2] the tree is widely cultivated and was introduced early to human history. It has various uses in traditional medicine and as a source of food. The genus name Ginkgo is regarded as a misspelling of the Japanese gin kyo, "silver apricot"
Ginseng
Ginseng (/ˈdʒɪnsɛŋ/[1]) is any one of the species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae. Ginseng is found in North America and in eastern Asia (mostly northeast China, Korea, Bhutan, eastern Siberia), typically in cooler climates. Ginseng is characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin. Panax vietnamensis, discovered in Vietnam, is the southernmost ginseng known. Besides P. ginseng, many other plants are also known as or mistaken for the ginseng root. The most commonly known examples are American ginseng xiyangshen (P. quinquefolius); Japanese ginseng (P. japonicus); Prince ginseng (Pseudostellaria heterophylla); and Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus). Although all have the name "ginseng", each plant has distinctly different functions. True ginseng plants belong only to the Panax genus.[2] This article focuses on two species of the genus Panax, named Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius. Although ginseng has been used in Chinese traditional medicine over centuries,[3] there is limited evidence from high-quality research that it has any effect on health.
Camellia sinensis
Green tea is a type of tea that is made from Camellia sinensis leaves that have not undergone the same withering and oxidation process used to make oolong and black tea.[1] Green tea originated in China, but its production has spread to many countries in Asia. Several varieties of green tea exist, which differ substantially because of the variety of C. sinensis used, growing conditions, horticultural methods, production processing, and time of harvest.
Crataegus
Crataegus (/krəˈtiːɡəs/),[3] (from the Greek kratos strength and akis sharp, referring to the thorns of some species[4]) commonly called hawthorn, thornapple,[5] May-tree,[6] whitethorn,[6] or hawberry, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the family Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe, Asia and North America. The name "hawthorn" was originally applied to the species native to northern Europe, especially the common hawthorn C. monogyna, and the unmodified name is often so used in Britain and Ireland. The name is now also applied to the entire genus and to the related Asian genus Rhaphiolepis. The name haw, originally an Old English term for hedge, applies to the fruit.[7]
Ocimum tenuiflorum
Ocimum tenuiflorum (synonym Ocimum sanctum), commonly known as holy basil, tulasi (sometimes spelled thulasi) or tulsi, is an aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae which is native to the Indian subcontinent and widespread as a cultivated plant throughout the Southeast Asian tropics.[2][3] Tulasi is cultivated for religious and medicinal purposes, and for its essential oil. It is widely known across the Indian subcontinent as a medicinal plant and a herbal tea, commonly used in Ayurveda, and has an important role within the Vaishnava tradition of Hinduism, in which devotees perform worship involving holy basil plants or leaves. This plant is revered as an elixir of life. The variety of Ocimum tenuiflorum used in Thai cuisine is referred to as Thai holy basil (Thai: กะเพรา kaphrao);[2] it is not to be confused with Thai basil, which is a variety of Ocimum basilicum. Ocimum is a genus of aromatic annual and perennial herbs and shrubs in the family Lamiaceae. Its best known species are the cooking herb Cooking basil, O. basilicum and this medicinal herb Tulsi (holy basil) , O. tenuiflorum. Most culinary and ornamental basils are cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.
Honey
Honey /ˈhʌni/ is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.[1] Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants (floral nectar) or other insects (aphid honeydew) through regurgitation, enzymatic activity, and water evaporation, and store it in wax structures called honeycombs.[1][2] The variety of honey produced by honey bees (the genus Apis) is the best-known, due to its worldwide commercial production and human consumption.[3] Honey is collected from wild bee colonies, or from hives of domesticated bees, a practice known as beekeeping. Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose, and has about the same relative sweetness as granulated sugar.[4][5] It has attractive chemical properties for baking and a distinctive flavor when used as a sweetener.[4] Most microorganisms do not grow in honey, so sealed honey does not spoil, even after thousands of years.[6][7] Providing 64 calories in a typical serving of one tablespoon (15 ml) equivalent to 1272 kj per 100 g, honey has no significant nutritional value.[8] Honey is generally safe,[9] but may have various, potentially adverse effects or interactions upon excessive consumption, existing disease conditions, or use of prescription drugs.[10] Honey use and production have a long and varied history as an ancient activity, depicted in Valencia, Spain by a cave painting of humans foraging for honey at least 8,000 years ago.
Humulus lupulus
Hops are the flowers (also called seed cones or strobiles) of the hop plant Humulus lupulus.[1] They are used primarily as a flavoring and stability agent in beer, to which they impart bitter, zesty, or citric flavours;[2] though they are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine. The hop plant is a vigorous, climbing, herbaceous perennial, usually trained to grow up strings in a field called a hopfield, hop garden (nomenclature in the South of England), or hop yard (in the West Country and U.S.) when grown commercially. Many different varieties of hops are grown by farmers around the world, with different types being used for particular styles of beer. The first documented use of hops in beer is from the 9th century, though Hildegard of Bingen, 300 years later, is often cited as the earliest documented source.[3] Before this period, brewers used gruit, composed of a wide variety of bitter herbs and flowers, including dandelion, burdock root, marigold, horehound (the old German name for horehound, Berghopfen, means "mountain hops"), ground ivy, and heather.[4] Early documents include mention of a hop garden in the will of Charlemagne's father, Pepin III.[5] In addition to adding flavor to beer, hops are also used in brewing for their antibacterial effect over less desirable microorganisms and for many purported benefits, including balancing the sweetness of the malt with bitterness, contributing a variety of desirable flavors and aromas.[2] Historically, traditional herb combinations for beers were believed to have been abandoned when beers made with hops were noticed to be less prone to spoilage.[6]
Phyllanthus emblica
Phyllanthus emblica, also known as emblic,[1][3] emblic myrobalan,[1] myrobalan,[3] Indian gooseberry,[1][3] Malacca tree,[3] or amla[3] from Sanskrit amalaki is a deciduous tree of the family Phyllanthaceae. It is known for its edible fruit of the same name.
Jojoba Oil
Jojoba oil /həˈhoʊbə/ (About this sound listen) is the liquid produced in the seed of the Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) plant, a shrub, which is native to southern Arizona, southern California, and northwestern Mexico. The oil makes up approximately 50% of the jojoba seed by weight.[1] The terms "jojoba oil" and "jojoba wax" are often used interchangeably because the wax visually appears to be a mobile oil, but as a wax it is composed almost entirely (~97%) of mono-esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols, accompanied by only a tiny fraction of triglyceride esters. This composition accounts for its extreme shelf-life stability and extraordinary resistance to high temperatures, compared with true vegetable oils.
L-arginine
Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R) encoded by the codons CGU, CGC, CGA, CGG, AGA, and AGG[1] is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Arginine is classified as a semiessential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual.[2] Preterm infants are unable to synthesize or create arginine internally, making the amino acid nutritionally essential for them.[3] Most healthy people do not need to supplement with arginine because it is a component of all protein-containing foods and their body produces sufficient amounts.[4] Arginine was first isolated from a lupin seedling extract in 1886 by the German chemist Ernst Schultze.[5] It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated −NH3+ form under biological conditions), an α-carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated −COO− form under biological conditions), and a side chain of a 3-carbon aliphatic straight chain capped by a complex guanidinium, classifying it as a charged (at physiological pH), aliphatic amino acid.
Lavandula
Lavandula (common name lavender) is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. It is native to the Old World and is found from Cape Verde and the Canary Islands, Europe across to northern and eastern Africa, the Mediterranean, southwest Asia to southeast India. Many members of the genus are cultivated extensively in temperate climates as ornamental plants for garden and landscape use, for use as culinary herbs, and also commercially for the extraction of essential oils. The most widely cultivated species, Lavandula angustifolia, is often referred to as lavender, and there is a color named for the shade of the flowers of this species.
Citrus limon
The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia. The tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, which has both culinary and cleaning uses.[2] The pulp and rind (zest) are also used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, which gives a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie.
Melissa officinalis
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis),[1] balm,[2] common balm,[3] or balm mint, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the mint family Lamiaceae and native to south-central Europe, the Mediterranean Basin, Iran, and Central Asia, but now naturalized in the Americas and elsewhere.[4] It grows to a maximum height of 70–150 cm (28–59 in). The leaves have a mild lemon scent similar to mint. During summer, small white flowers full of nectar appear. It is not to be confused with bee balm (genus Monarda), although the white flowers attract bees, hence the genus Melissa (Greek for "honey bee"). The leaves are used as an herb, in teas, and also as a flavouring. The plant is used to attract bees for honey production. It is grown as an ornamental plant and for its oil (to use in perfumery). The tea of lemon balm, the essential oil, and the extract are used in traditional and alternative medicine, including aromatherapy. The plant has been cultivated at least since the 16th century, but reliable medical research is still working to establish the safety and effects of lemon balm.
Licorice Root
Liquorice (British English) or licorice (American English) /ˈlɪkrɪʃ, ˈlɪkər-, -ɪs/ LIK-(ə-)rish, LIK-(ə-)ris)[5] is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. The liquorice plant is a herbaceous perennial legume native to southern Europe and parts of Asia, such as India. It is not botanically related to anise, star anise, or fennel, which are sources of similar flavouring compounds. Most liquorice is used as a flavouring agent for tobacco, particularly US blend cigarettes, to which liquorice lends a natural sweetness and a distinctive flavour and makes it easier to inhale the smoke by creating bronchodilators, which open up the lungs.[6][7] Liquorice flavours are also used as candies or sweeteners, particularly in some European and Middle Eastern countries. Liquorice extracts have a number of medical uses, and they are also used in herbal and folk medications. Excessive consumption of liquorice (more than 2 mg/kg/day of pure glycyrrhizinic acid, a liquorice component) may result in adverse effects, and overconsumption should be suspected clinically in patients presenting with otherwise unexplained hypokalemia and muscle weakness.[8]
Lepidium meyenii
Lepidium meyenii (maca) is an herbaceous biennial plant of the crucifer family native to the high Andes of Peru. It was found at the Meseta de Bombón close to Junin Lake in the Andes.[1] It is grown for its fleshy hypocotyl (a fused hypocotyl and taproot), which is used as a root vegetable and a medicinal herb. Its Spanish and Quechua names include maca-maca, maino, ayak chichira, and ayak willku.
Magnesium
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure. Magnesium is the ninth most abundant element in the universe.[4][5] It is produced in large, aging stars from the sequential addition of three helium nuclei to a carbon nucleus. When such stars explode as supernovas, much of the magnesium is expelled into the interstellar medium where it may recycle into new star systems. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust[6] and the fourth most common element in the Earth (after iron, oxygen and silicon), making up 13% of the planet's mass and a large fraction of the planet's mantle. It is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater, after sodium and chlorine.[7] Magnesium occurs naturally only in combination with other elements, where it invariably has a +2 oxidation state. The free element (metal) can be produced artificially, and is highly reactive (though in the atmosphere, it is soon coated in a thin layer of oxide that partly inhibits reactivity — see passivation). The free metal burns with a characteristic brilliant-white light. The metal is now obtained mainly by electrolysis of magnesium salts obtained from brine, and is used primarily as a component in aluminium-magnesium alloys, sometimes called magnalium or magnelium. Magnesium is less dense than aluminium, and the alloy is prized for its combination of lightness and strength. Magnesium is the eleventh most abundant element by mass in the human body and is essential to all cells and some 300 enzymes.[8] Magnesium ions interact with polyphosphate compounds such as ATP, DNA, and RNA. Hundreds of enzymes require magnesium ions to function. Magnesium compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives, antacids (e.g., milk of magnesia), and to stabilize abnormal nerve excitation or blood vessel spasm in such conditions as eclampsia.
Althaea officinalis
Althaea officinalis (marsh-mallow,[2] marsh mallow (Persian: خطمی، ختمی‎‎, Arabic: ختمية الطبية، خبيز‎‎), or common marshmallow) is a perennial species indigenous to Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, which is used as a medicinal plant and ornamental plant. A confection made from the root since ancient Egyptian time evolved into today's marshmallow treat.
Meditation
Meditation is a practice where an individual operates or trains the mind or induces a mode of consciousness, either to realize some benefit or for the mind to simply acknowledge its content without becoming identified with that content,[1] or as an end in itself.[2] The term meditation refers to a broad variety of practices that includes techniques designed to promote relaxation, build internal energy or life force (qi, ki, prana, etc.) and develop compassion,[3] love, patience, generosity, and forgiveness. A particularly ambitious form of meditation aims at effortlessly sustained single-pointed concentration[4] meant to enable its practitioner to enjoy an indestructible sense of well-being while engaging in any life activity. The word meditation carries different meanings in different contexts. Meditation has been practiced since antiquity as a component of numerous religious traditions and beliefs.[5] Meditation often involves an internal effort to self-regulate the mind in some way. Meditation is often used to clear the mind and ease many health concerns, such as high blood pressure,[6] depression, and anxiety. It may be done sitting, or in an active way—for instance, Buddhist monks involve awareness in their day-to-day activities as a form of mind-training. Prayer beads or other ritual objects are commonly used during meditation in order to keep track of or remind the practitioner about some aspect of that training. Meditation may involve generating an emotional state for the purpose of analyzing that state—such as anger, hatred, etc.—or cultivating a particular mental response to various phenomena, such as compassion.[7][8][9] The term "meditation" can refer to the state itself, as well as to practices or techniques employed to cultivate the state.[10] Meditation may also involve repeating a mantra and closing the eyes.[11] The mantra is chosen based on its suitability to the individual meditator. Meditation has a calming effect and directs awareness inward until pure awareness is achieved, described as "being awake inside without being aware of anything except awareness itself."[12] In brief, there are dozens of specific styles of meditation practice, and many different types of activity commonly referred to as meditative practices.[13]
Silybum marianum
Silybum marianum has other common names include cardus marianus, milk thistle,[1] blessed milkthistle,[2] Marian thistle, Mary thistle, Saint Mary's thistle, Mediterranean milk thistle, variegated thistle and Scotch thistle. This species is an annual or biennial plant of the Asteraceae family. This fairly typical thistle has red to purple flowers and shiny pale green leaves with white veins. Originally a native of Southern Europe through to Asia, it is now found throughout the world.
Mentha
Mentha (also known as mint, from Greek míntha,[2] Linear B mi-ta)[3] is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae (mint family).[4] It is estimated that 13 to 18 species exist, and the exact distinction between species is still unclear.[5] Hybridization between some of the species occurs naturally. Many other hybrids, as well as numerous cultivars, are known. The genus has a subcosmopolitan distribution across Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, and North America.[6] Mints are aromatic, almost exclusively perennial, rarely annual herbs. They have wide-spreading underground and overground stolons[7] and erect, square,[8] branched stems. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, from oblong to lanceolate, often downy, and with a serrated margin. Leaf colors range from dark green and gray-green to purple, blue, and sometimes pale yellow.[6] The flowers are white to purple and produced in false whorls called verticillasters. The corolla is two-lipped with four subequal lobes, the upper lobe usually the largest. The fruit is a nutlet, containing one to four seeds. While the species that make up the Mentha genus are widely distributed and can be found in many environments, most grow best in wet environments and moist soils. Mints will grow 10–120 cm tall and can spread over an indeterminate area. Due to their tendency to spread unchecked, some mints are considered invasive.[9]
Mustard
Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant (white/ yellow mustard, Sinapis alba; brown/ Indian mustard, Brassica juncea; or black mustard, B. nigra). The whole, ground, cracked, or bruised mustard seeds are mixed with water, vinegar, lemon juice, wine, or other liquids, salt, and often other flavorings and spices, to create a paste or sauce ranging in color from bright yellow to dark brown. The taste of mustard ranges from sweet to spicy.[1] Commonly paired with meats and cheeses, mustard is added to sandwiches, salads, hamburgers, corn dogs, and hot dogs. It is also used as an ingredient in many dressings, glazes, sauces, soups, and marinades. As a cream or as individual seeds, mustard is used as a condiment in the cuisine of India and Bangladesh, the Mediterranean, northern and southeastern Europe, Asia, the Americas, and Africa,[2] making it one of the most popular and widely used spices and condiments in the world.
Myrrh
Myrrh (/ˈmɜːr/; from Aramaic, but see § Etymology) is a natural gum or resin extracted from a number of small, thorny tree species of the genus Commiphora.[1] Myrrh resin has been used throughout history as a perfume, incense, and medicine. Myrrh mixed with wine can also be ingested.
Nicotinic Aid
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound with the formula C 6H 5NO 2 and, depending on the definition used, one of the 20 to 80 essential human nutrients. Together with nicotinamide it makes up the group known as vitamin B3 complex.[2] Medication and supplemental niacin are primarily used to treat high blood cholesterol and pellagra (niacin deficiency). Insufficient niacin in the diet can cause nausea, skin and mouth lesions, anemia, headaches, and tiredness. The lack of niacin may also be observed in pandemic deficiency disease, which is caused by a lack of five crucial vitamins (niacin, vitamin C, thiamin, vitamin D, and vitamin A) and is usually found in areas of widespread poverty and malnutrition. Niacin is provided in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foods, with highest contents in fortified packaged foods and meat from various animal sources. Some countries require its addition to grains.[3] This colorless, water-soluble solid is a derivative of pyridine, with a carboxyl group (COOH) at the 3-position. Other forms of vitamin B3 include the corresponding amide nicotinamide ("niacinamide"), where the carboxyl group has been replaced by a carboxamide group (CONH 2), as well as more complex amides and a variety of esters. Nicotinic acid and niacinamide are convertible to each other with steady world demand rising from 8,500 tonnes per year in the 1980s to 40,000 in recent years.[4] Niacin cannot be directly converted to nicotinamide, but both compounds are precursors of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) in vivo.[5] NAD converts to NADP by phosphorylation in the presence of the enzyme NAD+ kinase. NADP and NAD are coenzymes for many dehydrogenases, participating in many hydrogen transfer processes.[6] NAD is important in catabolism of fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol, as well as cell signaling and DNA repair, and NADP mostly in anabolism reactions such as fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis.[6] High energy requirements (brain) or high turnover rate (gut, skin) organs are usually the most susceptible to their deficiency.[7] Niacin supplementation has not been found useful for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in those already on a statin,[8] but appears to be effective in those not taking a statin.[9] Although niacin and nicotinamide are identical in their vitamin activity, nicotinamide does not have the same pharmacological effects (lipid modifying effects) as niacin. Nicotinamide does not reduce cholesterol or cause flushing.[10] As the precursor for NAD and NADP, niacin is also involved in DNA repair.[11][12]
Nutmeg
Nutmeg refers to the seed or ground spice of several species of the Myristica genus. Myristica fragrans (fragrant nutmeg or true nutmeg) is a dark-leaved, evergreen tree cultivated for two spices derived from its fruit, nutmeg and mace. It is also a commercial source of an essential oil and nutmeg butter.[1] Other members of the genus, such as M. argentea (Papuan nutmeg) and M. malabarica (Bombay nutmeg), are of limited commercial value.[1] The California nutmeg (Torreya californica) has a similar fruit but is not closely related to Myristica fragans.[1]
Oatmeal
Oatmeal is made of hulled oat grains – groats – that have either been ground, steel-cut, or rolled. Ground oats are also called "white oats". Steel-cut oats are known as "coarse oatmeal" or "Irish oatmeal" or "pinhead oats". Rolled oats can be either thick or thin, and may be "old-fashioned" or "quick" or "instant". The term "oatmeal" is also used in the U.S., Australia, and parts of Canada as another word for an oat porridge made from either the ground, steel-cut, or rolled oats.
Okra, Okro
Okra or okro (US: /ˈoʊkrə/ or UK: /ˈɒkrə/), known in many English-speaking countries as ladies' fingers, ochro or gumbo, is a flowering plant in the mallow family. It is valued for its edible green seed pods. The geographical origin of okra is disputed, with supporters of West African, Ethiopian, and South Asian origins. The plant is cultivated in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions around the world.[2]
Omega-3 fatty acids
Omega-3 fatty acids—also called ω-3 fatty acids or n-3 fatty acids[1]—are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain.[2][3] The fatty acids have two ends, the carboxylic acid (-COOH) end, which is considered the beginning of the chain, thus "alpha", and the methyl (-CH3) end, which is considered the "tail" of the chain, thus "omega"; the double bond is at omega minus 3 (not dash 3). One way in which a fatty acid is named is determined by the location of the first double bond, counted from the methyl end, that is, the omega (ω-) or the n- end. However, the standard (IUPAC) chemical nomenclature system starts from the carbonyl end. The three types of omega-3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are α-linolenic acid (ALA) (found in plant oils), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (both commonly found in marine oils).[2] Marine algae and phytoplankton are primary sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Common sources of plant oils containing the omega-3 ALA fatty acid include walnut, edible seeds, clary sage seed oil, algal oil, flaxseed oil, Sacha Inchi oil, Echium oil, and hemp oil, while sources of animal omega-3 EPA and DHA fatty acids include fish, fish oils, eggs from chickens fed EPA and DHA, squid oils, and krill oil. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids does not appear to affect the risk of death, cancer or heart disease.[4][5] Furthermore, fish oil supplement studies have failed to support claims of preventing heart attacks or strokes.[6] Omega-3 fatty acids are important for normal metabolism.[7] Mammals are unable to synthesize omega-3 fatty acids, but can obtain the shorter-chain omega-3 fatty acid ALA (18 carbons and 3 double bonds) through diet and use it to form the more important long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, EPA (20 carbons and 5 double bonds) and then from EPA, the most crucial, DHA (22 carbons and 6 double bonds).[7] The ability to make the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids from ALA may be impaired in aging.[8][9] In foods exposed to air, unsaturated fatty acids are vulnerable to oxidation and rancidity.[10]
Origanum vulgare
Oregano (US: /ɔːˈrɛɡənoʊ/ or /əˈrɛɡənoʊ/;[1] UK: /ˌɒrɪˈɡɑːnoʊ/;,[2] scientific name Origanum vulgare, is a flowering plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae). It is native to temperate western and southwestern Eurasia and the Mediterranean region. Oregano is a perennial herb, growing from 20–80 cm (7.9–31.5 in) tall, with opposite leaves 1–4 cm (0.39–1.57 in) long. The flowers are purple, 3–4 mm (0.12–0.16 in) long, produced in erect spikes. It is sometimes called wild marjoram, and its close relative O. majorana is known as sweet marjoram.
Petroselinum crispum
Parsley or garden parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a species of flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to the central Mediterranean region (southern Italy, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Malta, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia), naturalized elsewhere in Europe, and widely cultivated as a herb, a spice, and a vegetable. Where it grows as a biennial, in the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves 10–25 cm (3.9–9.8 in) long with numerous 1–3 cm (0.4–1.2 in) leaflets, and a taproot used as a food store over the winter. Parsley is widely used in European, Middle Eastern, and American cooking. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. In central Europe, eastern Europe and southern Europe, as well as in western Asia, many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. Root parsley is very common in central, eastern and southern European cuisines, where it is used as a snack or a vegetable in many soups, stews, and casseroles.
Passiflora
Passiflora, known also as the passion flowers or passion vines, is a genus of about 500 species of flowering plants, the type genus of the family Passifloraceae. They are mostly vines, with some being shrubs, and a few species being herbaceous. For information about the fruit of the passiflora plant, see passionfruit. The monotypic genus Hollrungia seems to be inseparable from Passiflora, but further study is needed.
Peppermint
Peppermint (Mentha × piperita, also known as Mentha balsamea Willd.)[1] is a hybrid mint, a cross between watermint and spearmint.[2] Indigenous to Europe and the Middle East, the plant is now widespread in cultivation in many regions of the world.[3] It is occasionally found in the wild with its parent species.
Rubus idaeus
Red raspberry leaf is known to: Ease menstrual discomfort Improve reproductive health Balance hormones to increase fertility May improve chances of implantation May prevent miscarriage by strengthening and toning the uterine wall The uterus needs a lot of vitamins and minerals to function properly and red raspberry leaf tea has almost all of them. Red raspberry leaf is high in Vitamins C, E, A, B and has significant amounts of major minerals like magnesium, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus. It also contains essential trace minerals such as zinc, iron, chromium and manganese. These vitamins and minerals are in a readily absorbable form, making Red Raspberry Leaf tea a wonderful, food-based “supplement” during preconception, pregnancy and beyond. The nutritional boost that RRL gives you can help improve your immune system as well. Red raspberry leaf is also used in folk medicine for ailments unrelated to pregnancy such as to lower unhealthy blood pressure and blood sugar levels, as well as to treat acne, adrenal fatigue, sore throat, canker sores, and cold and fevers. It has been used to treat children with diarrhea, vomiting or the flu. Red raspberry leaf tea can also help ease a pet’s stomach upset when he is eating something he shouldn’t have. Men can benefit from this tea too as it supports prostate health.
Red yeast rice
Red yeast rice (simplified Chinese: 红曲米; traditional Chinese: 紅麴米; pinyin: hóng qū mǐ; literally: "red yeast rice"), red rice koji (べにこうじ, lit. 'red koji') or akakoji (あかこぎ, also meaning 'red koji'), red fermented rice, red kojic rice, red koji rice, anka, or ang-kak, is a bright reddish purple fermented rice, which acquires its colour from being cultivated with the mold Monascus purpureus. Red yeast rice is what is referred to as a "koji" in Japanese, meaning "grain or bean overgrown with a mold culture", a food preparation tradition going back to ca. 300 BC.[1] In both the scientific and popular literature in English that draws principally on Japanese, red yeast rice is most often referred to as "red rice koji".[1] English works favoring Chinese sources may prefer the translation "red yeast rice". Because of the low cost of chemical dyes, some producers of red yeast rice have adulterated their products with the dye Sudan Red G.[2]
Rhodiola rosea
Rhodiola rosea (commonly golden root, rose root, roseroot,[2]:138 Aaron's rod, Arctic root, king's crown, lignum rhodium, orpin rose) is a perennial flowering plant in the family Crassulaceae.[3] It grows naturally in wild Arctic regions of Europe, including Britain, Asia and North America, and can be propagated as a groundcover.[3] Although it has long been used in traditional medicine for several disorders, notably including treatment of anxiety and depression, there is little scientific evidence to verify these uses
Rosmarinus officinalis
Rosmarinus officinalis, commonly known as rosemary, is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region. It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae, which includes many other herbs. The name "rosemary" derives from the Latin for "dew" (ros) and "sea" (marinus), or "dew of the sea".[2] The plant is also sometimes called anthos, from the ancient Greek word ἄνθος, meaning "flower".[3] Rosemary has a fibrous root system.
Serenoa
Serenoa repens, commonly known as saw palmetto, is the sole species currently classified in the genus Serenoa. It is a small palm, growing to a maximum height around 7–10 ft (2–3 m). It is endemic to the subtropical Southeastern United States, most commonly along the south Atlantic and Gulf Coastal plains and sand hills. It grows in clumps or dense thickets in sandy coastal areas, and as undergrowth in pine woods or hardwood hammocks.
Ulmus rubra
Ulmus rubra, the slippery elm, is a species of elm native to eastern North America, ranging from southeast North Dakota, east to Maine and southern Quebec, south to northernmost Florida, and west to eastern Texas, where it thrives in moist uplands, although it will also grow in dry, intermediate soils.[3] Other common names include red elm, gray elm, soft elm, moose elm, and Indian elm. The tree was first named as part of Ulmus americana in 1753,[4] but identified as a separate species, Ulmus rubra, in 1793 by Pennsylvania botanist Gotthilf Muhlenberg. The slightly later name U. fulva, published by French botanist André Michaux in 1803,[5] is still widely used in dietary-supplement and alternative-medicine information. The species superficially resembles American elm U. americana, but is more closely related to the European wych elm U. glabra, which has a very similar flower structure, though lacks the pubescence over the seed.[6] U. rubra was introduced to Europe in 1830.[4]
Ageratina
Ageratina (snakeroot) is a genus of more than 330[1][2][3][4] perennials and rounded shrubs in the family Asteraceae. These plants grow mainly in the warmer regions of the Americas and West Indies. Over 150 species are native to Mexico.[5] Some flourish in the cooler areas of the eastern United States. Two Mexican species have become a pest in parts of Australia and Taiwan.[4] Ageratina used to belong to the genus Eupatorium, but it has been reclassified.
Hypericum perforatum
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort,[1] common Saint John's wort and St John's wort (/ˈsɪndʒənzwɜːrt/ SIN-jənz-wurt),[note 1] is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae. The common name "St John's wort" may be used to refer to any species of the genus Hypericum. Therefore, Hypericum perforatum is sometimes called "common St John's wort" or "perforate St John's wort" in order to differentiate it. It is a medicinal herb with antidepressant activity and potent anti-inflammatory properties as an arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor and COX-1 inhibitor
Urtica dioica
Urtica dioica, often called common nettle, stinging nettle (although not all plants of this species sting) or nettle leaf, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Urticaceae. It is native to Europe, Asia, northern Africa, and western North America,[1] and introduced elsewhere. The species is divided into six subspecies, five of which have many hollow stinging hairs called trichomes on the leaves and stems, which act like hypodermic needles, injecting histamine and other chemicals that produce a stinging sensation when contacted by humans and other animals.[2] The plant has a long history of use as a source of medicine, food, and fibre.
melaleuca oil
Tea tree oil (TTO), also known as melaleuca oil or ti tree oil, is an essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odor and a colour that ranges from pale yellow to nearly colourless and clear.[1] It is taken from the leaves of the Melaleuca alternifolia, which is native to Southeast Queensland and the Northeast coast of New South Wales, Australia. Tea tree oil is toxic when taken by mouth,[2][3] but is widely used in low concentrations in cosmetics and skin washes.[4] Tea tree oil has been claimed to be useful for treating a wide variety of medical conditions. It shows some promise as an antimicrobial agent. Tea tree oil may be effective in a variety of dermatologic conditions, including dandruff, acne, lice, herpes, and other skin infections.[5] However, the quality of the evidence is low,[6][2] and tea tree oil is not recommended for treating fungal infections or for use on children.[7][8][9]
Thymus vulgaris
Thyme (/ˈtaɪm/) is an aromatic perennial evergreen herb with culinary, medicinal, and ornamental uses. The most common variety is Thymus vulgaris. Thyme is of the genus Thymus of the mint family (Lamiaceae), and a relative of the oregano genus Origanum.
Turmeric
Turmeric (/ˈtɜːrmərɪk/)[2] is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant (Curcuma longa) of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.[3] It is native to Southeast Asia, requiring temperatures between 20 and 30 °C (68 and 86 °F) and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes and propagated from some of those rhizomes in the following season. When not used fresh, the rhizomes are boiled for about 30–45 minutes and then dried in hot ovens, after which they are ground into a deep-orange-yellow powder[4] commonly used as a coloring and flavoring agent in the cuisines of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran and Pakistan, especially for curries, as well as for dyeing. Although long-used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat various diseases, there is little high-quality clinical evidence for use of turmeric or its main constituent, curcumin, as a therapy.
Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae) is a perennial flowering plant, with heads of sweetly scented pink or white flowers that bloom in the summer and can reach a height of 5 feet. Valerian flower extracts were used as a perfume in the 16th century. Native to Europe and parts of Asia, valerian has been introduced into North America. The flowers are frequently visited by many fly species, especially hoverflies of the genus Eristalis.[1] It is consumed as food by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species including the grey pug. Other names used for this plant include garden valerian (to distinguish it from other Valeriana species), garden heliotrope (although not related to Heliotropium), setwall and all-heal (which is also used for plants in the genus Stachys). Red valerian, often grown in gardens, is also sometimes referred to as "valerian", but is a different species (Centranthus ruber) from the same family and not very closely related. Crude extract of valerian root is sold as a dietary supplement in the form of capsules. Valerian root may have sedative and anxiolytic effects. The amino acid valine is named after this plant.
Vitamin D
Vitamin D refers to a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and zinc and multiple other biological effects. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).[1] Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be ingested from the diet and from supplements.[1][2][3] Only a few foods contain vitamin D. The major natural source of the vitamin is synthesis of cholecalciferol in the skin from cholesterol through a chemical reaction that is dependent on sun exposure (specifically UVB radiation). The Dietary Reference Intake for vitamin D, made by the Institute of Medicine, assumes all of a person's vitamin D is from oral intake, as recommendations about the amount of sun exposure required for optimal vitamin D levels are uncertain in view of the skin cancer risk. Vitamin D from the diet or skin synthesis is biologically inactive; enzymatic conversion (hydroxylation) in the liver and kidney is required for activation. As vitamin D can be synthesized in adequate amounts by most mammals exposed to sufficient sunlight, it is not an essential dietary factor, and so not technically a vitamin.[3] Instead it could be considered as a hormone, with activation of the vitamin D pro-hormone resulting in the active form, calcitriol, which then produces effects via a nuclear receptor in multiple different locations.[3] Cholecalciferol is converted in the liver to calcifediol (25-hydroxycholecalciferol); ergocalciferol is converted to 25-hydroxyergocalciferol. These two vitamin D metabolites (called 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D) are measured in serum to determine a person's vitamin D status.[4][5] Calcifediol is further hydroxylated by the kidneys to form calcitriol (also known as 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), the biologically active form of vitamin D.[6] Calcitriol circulates as a hormone in the blood, having a major role regulating the concentration of calcium and phosphate, and promoting the healthy growth and remodeling of bone. Calcitriol also has other effects, including some on cell growth, neuromuscular and immune functions, and reduction of inflammation.[7] Vitamin D has a significant role in calcium homeostasis and metabolism. Its discovery was due to effort to find the dietary substance lacking in rickets (the childhood form of osteomalacia).[8] Vitamin D supplements are given to treat or to prevent osteomalacia and rickets, but the evidence for other health effects of vitamin D supplementation in the general population is inconsistent.[9][10] The effect of vitamin D supplementation on mortality is not clear, with one meta-analysis finding a small decrease in mortality in elderly people,[11] and another concluding no clear justification exists for recommending supplementation for preventing many diseases, and that further research in these areas is unneeded.
Dioscorea villosa
Dioscorea villosa is a species of a twining tuberous vine that is native to eastern North America. It is common and widespread in a range stretching from Texas and Florida north to Minnesota, Ontario and Massachusetts.[1][2][3][4] Creams and dietary supplements made from Dioscorea villosa are claimed to contain human hormones and promoted as a medicine for a variety of purposes, including cancer prevention and the treatment of Crohn's disease and whooping cough. However, according to the American Cancer Society, the claims are false and there is no evidence to support these substances being either safe or effective.[5] In traditional Russian herbal medicine, saponin extracts from the roots of various varieties of wild yam are used as an anticoagulant, antisclerotic, antispasmodic, cholagogue, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic and a vasodilator.
Witch-Hazel
Witch-hazels (Hamamelis, /ˌhæməˈmiːlɪs/)[1] are a genus of flowering plants in the family Hamamelidaceae, with four species in North America (H. mexicana,[2] H. ovalis,[3] H. virginiana, and H. vernalis), and one each in Japan (H. japonica) and China (H. mollis). The North American species are occasionally called winterbloom.
Pausinystalia johimbe
Pausinystalia johimbe, (Rubiaceae), common name Yohimbe, is a plant species native to western and central Africa (Nigeria, Cabinda, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea).[1] Extracts from yohimbe have been used in traditional medicine in West Africa as an aphrodisiac and have been marketed in developed countries as dietary supplements.[2][3]